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Vishnu is the supreme god in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God.[1]

According to various Purana, Vishnu is shapeless, being the ultimate omnipresent reality. However, a strict iconography governs his representation, whether in pictures, icons, or idols:[2]

  1. He is to be depicted as a four-armed male-form: The four arms indicate his all-powerful and all-pervasive nature. The physical existence of Vishnu is represented by the two arms in the front while the two arms at the back represent his presence in the spiritual world. The Upanishad titled Gopal Uttartapani describes the four arms of Vishnu.
  2. Around his neck, he wears the "Kaustubha" jewel, and a garland of flowers (vanamaalaa). It is in this jewel, on Vishnu's chest that his consort Lakshmi dwells.
  3. He is to be shown wearing two earrings: The earrings represent inherent opposites in creation — knowledge and ignorance; happiness and unhappiness; pleasure and pain.
  4. He rests on Ananta: the immortal and infinite snake.
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