Soul

From Iron Chariots Wiki
Revision as of 16:29, 24 November 2011 by Robertwr (Talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search

The soul is an immaterial spirit that many religions claim resides in a human's body. It is supposedly responsible for consciousness, and is usually considered to be immortal. In Christianity, one's soul goes to heaven, hell, Purgatory, or simply the spirit world in the case of the Latter Days Saints movement[1], after death.

Origins

Some anthropologists have suggested that belief in the soul came about as early humans attempted to understand what happened when someone died. One of the first observations that can be made of a dead person is that he is no longer breathing. It appears to be no great coincidence that words for soul or spirit in many languages have etymologies linked to concepts like "air" or "wind."

Some examples of this in other languages:

Ancient Hebrew: rûach רוּח - wind; by resemblance breath, that is, a sensible (or even violent) exhalation (from e-Sword, translated as spirit in Genesis 1:2 KJV)

Swedish: Compare "ande" (spirit) and andlighet (spirituality) with the verb infinitive "att andas" (to breathe)

Counter-apologetics

  1. Nobody knows how the soul interacts with the body. Since it's immaterial, physical things cannot influence it, yet it somehow communicates with the brain and vice versa.
  2. The idea of a soul raises many questions about relativity. If the soul doesn't occupy our universe, then it shouldn't experience time. Since we do feel time, it cannot be immaterial. Since it occupies our universe, this raises many questions about its composition. Is it made of the basic particles of which all matter is comprised? If it's an entirely different type of particle, what's its mass? Is it influenced by the four fundamental forces? What's its charge? How does it manage to hold your consciousness? None of these questions have ever been answered. Therefore, using the soul to explain something is using a term that isn't defined.
  3. Just what information does the soul contain? Science has proven that certain parts of our physical brain are used for emotions, other parts are used for memory, logical thinking, and the pacing of one's breath and heartbeat. Damage to a certain part of the brain can drastically affect one's personality, memory, or thought processes. And if the soul contains our memories, then what is the point of our memories being stored in our physical brain as well? Is Alzheimer's or amnesia a problem with the brain or a problem with the soul?
  4. The introduction of certain chemical drugs to the brain can drastically change one's thoughts, memories, behavior, emotions, judgment, etc. Are these drugs somehow acting on the soul and changing properties of the soul?
    Soul in the Old Testament is translated from nehphesh, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature” A study of the way it is translated in the King James and how other translation differ greatly from the King James reveals facts that are far different that the belief of most about what the soul is and facts that most will find upsetting. Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament about 870 times and is translated soul only about 473 times in the King James and in the New International Version (2010 updated version) only 72 out about 870 times it is used.
    Nehphesh is translated in the King James Version into about 40 words, into nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc.

1. Soul about 473 times. 2. Life about 122 times 3. Person about 26 times 4. Mind about 15 times 5. Heart about 15 times 6. Personal pronouns 44 + times (yourselves, themselves, her, me, he, his, himself) 7. All others, about 200 times (man, creature, living being, fish, own, any, living thing, living creatures, lives, the dead, dead body, kills, slays, slay him, mortally, discontented, ghost, breath, will, appetite, hearty desire, desire, pleasure, lust, deadly).

    In all 870 times this word is used it is associated with the activity of a living being, including dying, and it never implies anything about life after the death of the living being. None of the 870 times are an immortal, immaterial, inter something in a person that has no substance; souls (nehpheshs) are the living being (persons, animals, or any living thing) that can die, be killed, or is already be dead.
    Soul (nehphesh) as it is used in the Bible - although its use is often hid form the English readers by the way it was translated or mistranslated.
    (1) Genesis 1:20 "The moving creature that has life" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”). Footnote in the King James Version–"The moving creature that has soul." American Standard Version–"Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures" (soul–nehphesh). 

If “soul” were an immortal "immaterial, invisible part of man" (W. E. Vine, Expository Dictionary Of Old And New Testament Words), why is this Hebrew word that is translated soul also translated "living creature" when it is speaking of animals in Genesis 1:21; 1:24; 2:19; 9:10; 9:12; 9:15; 9:16 when the same Hebrew word (nehphesh) is translated "living soul" in Genesis 2:7 when it is speaking of a person? In the Hebrew, if this word were an immaterial, immortal part of a person, it would also be an immaterial, immortal part of animals.

    (2) Genesis 1:21 "living creature" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to all life in the water), "And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature (soul–nehphesh) that moves wherewith the water swarmed.”
    (3) Genesis 1:24 "living creature" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals, all life on the land), "And God said, Let the earth bring forth living creatures (soul–nehphesh) after their kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth." In Genesis 1:21-24 every living thing on earth, whether in the water or on land, every thing that has life is a nehphesh, a living being; nehphesh in all sea life, all land life, or man is not inherent indestructible immortality, not an immortal deathless “soul.”
    (4) Genesis 1:30 "life" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals), "And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life" (soul–nehphesh); animals are "a living soul."
    ALL FOUR TIMES THAT SOUL (nehphesh) IS USED IN GENESIS ONE IT IS USED REFERRING TO ANIMALS Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature, i.e. animal.” NOT TO A PERSON. ANIMALS WERE SOULS, LIVING BEINGS, BEFORE ANY MAN EXISTED; BUT IT LOOKS AS IF THE TRANSLATORS DELIBERATELY HID THE FACT THAT IT IS THE SAME WORD THAT THEY SOMETIMES TRANSLATED SOUL.

• SOUL WHEN IT IS SPEAKING OF PEOPLE • LIVING CREATURES WHEN IT THE SAME WORD IS SPEAKING OF ANIMALS "Then God said, 'Let the waters teem with swarms of living souls (soul–nehpheshs), and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.' And God created the great sea monsters, and every living soul (soul-nehphesh) that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, 'Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.' And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. Then God said, 'Let the earth bring forth living souls (soul–nehpheshs) after their kind: cattle and creeping thing and beasts of the earth after their kind'; and it was so...and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life (soul–nehphesh), I have given every green herb for meat" (Genesis 1:20-30). “Living creatures" (soul–nehphesh) is used to describe all living things on earth, people, animals, birds, and fish, not eternal life or some immaterial invisible part of a person that is eternal. If a person being a soul (nehphesh–a living being) makes that person be either immortal or in the image of God, then it makes animals, birds, and fish being a soul (nehphesh–a living being) also be immortal and in the image of God.

    (5) Genesis 2:7 "A living soul" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to a person, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”) The first time the King James Version translated nehphesh into "soul," most other translations did not agree with it, not even the New King James Version. "Man became a living being" New King James Version.

• “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:20 • “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:21 • “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:24 • “Wherein there is life" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:30 • “A living soul" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:7 "Man became a living being" New King James Version o It is obvious that the translators of the King James Version translated according to a preconceived opinion in an attempt make persons have immortality but keep animals from having souls; they made a distinction in animals and men that dose not exist in the Hebrew Bible. o Genesis 2:7 Man became: • “A living soul" King James Version • "A living being" New King James Version, American Standard Version, New American Standard Version, Revised Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, New International Version, Amplified Version, The New American Bible. • "A living person" New Century Version, The Living Bible, New Living Translation. • "A living creature" The Revised English Bible, Young's Literal Translation. • "Life" Contemporary English Version.

    Although this passage is repeatedly used to prove man has an immortal soul that animals do not have, most translations other than the King James apply it to the living breathing being or person, not to an invisible inter part of a person. Adam being spoken of as a "living being" (nehphesh Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”) proves he was mortal, not immortal, just as all "living beings" (nehphesh) fish, birds, animals, are mortal, not immortal. How can this be one of the proof texts used to prove Adam was made with an immortal soul? If it proves Adam had an immortal soul then it proves that fish have an immortal soul that cannot die.
    It is importance to understand that it is being said that both animals and mankind are a soul (are living beings) not that animals or mankind have a soul (have a part, an immortal, invisible, no substitute something in them that cannot die). Many assume Genesis is saying only mankind has souls but animals do not. Because of what they have been taught most, without realizing it they read into this that only mankind has a soul that is an immortal, invisible, no substitutes something that cannot die. This causes them to believe that only this immortal part of them self will be saved (more on this at the end of this chapter). 
    THE BREATH OF LIFE: Some have switched from the soul being the immortal part of a person to the spirit being the immortal part of a person that animals do not have. “Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathe into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being” The phrase  “breath of life” that was breathed into man is the same Hebrew “breath of life” in Genesis 7:21-22 that is in the nostrils of birds, cattle, men and beasts. It is not a soul or spirit that men have but animals do not have; it does not say that God breathed into Adam an immortal soul; the breathless body that God made from the earth is what became a living breathing being. God did not tell Adam he had a body that was made from the earth but the real Adam was made of something not from the earth.

• “Breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (nshahmah)” man (Genesis 2:7) • “All in whose nostrils was the breath of life (nshahmah)” both man and animals have the same “breath of life (nshahmah)” (Genesis 7:22) • “Saved alive nothing that breaths (nshahmah)” both men and animals (Deuteronomy 20:16) • “Utterly destroyed all that breaths (nshahmah)” both men and animals (Joshua 10:40) • “There was not any left to breaths (nshahmah)” both men and animals (Joshua 11:11) • “Neither left they any to breaths (nshahmah)” both men and animals (Joshua 11:14) (6) Genesis 2:19 "living creature" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals), "Every beast...every bird...whatsoever the man called every living creature (soul–nehphesh), that was the name thereof" (7) Genesis 9:4 "life" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) (8) Genesis 9:5 "lives" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to man) (9) Genesis 9:5 "life" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to man) (10) Genesis 9:10 "living creature" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) (11) Genesis 9:12 "living creature" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) (12) Genesis 9:15 "living creature" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to man and animals) (13) Genesis 9:16 "living creature" (soul–nehphesh, used referring to man and animals) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A bird’s eye view of the translation of nehphesh in the first nine chapters 1. “Moving creature that has life" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:20 - animals 2. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:21- animals 3. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:24 - animals 4. “Wherein there is life" (soul - nehphesh) Genesis 1:30 - animals 5. “A living soul" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:7 - man 6. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:19 – animals 7. “Life" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:4 - animals 8. “Lives” (nehphesh) Genesis 9:5 - man 9. “Life" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:5 - man 10. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:10 - animals 11. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:12 - animals 12. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:15 - man and animals 13. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:16 - man and animals

    This is an example of men attempting to cover up the truth when it is contradictory to their theology. It takes a lot of preconceived theology to make nehphesh be an immaterial invisible no substance part of a man that is now immortal that is not in animals when it is not deliberately hid as it is in the King James Version.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

    In Genesis 9:4-16 the same word is used for both man and animals seven times in the same passage.

To animals five times, to man four times • Three times to animals alone • Two times to animals and man together • Two times to man alone

    "But flesh with the LIFE (#1. Soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat. And surely your blood, the blood of your LIVES (#2. soul–nehphesh, used referring to man), will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it: and at the hand of men, even at the hand of every man's brother, will I require the LIFE (#3. soul–nehphesh, used referring to man) of man. Whoso sheds man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God made He men. And you, be you fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein. And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, and I, behold, I establish my covenant with you and with your seed after you; and every LIVING CREATURE (#4. soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) that is with you, of the fowl, and the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth. And I will establish my covenant with you; neither shall the waters of a flood cut off all flesh be any more; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth. And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every LIVING CREATURE (#5. soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) that is with you, for perpetual generation: I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a token of a covenant between me and the earth. And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud: and I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every LIVING CREATURE (#6. soul–nehphesh, used referring to man and animals) of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every LIVING CREATURE (#7. soul–nehphesh, used referring to man and animals) of all flesh that is upon the earth."
    All four times that soul (nehphesh) is used in Genesis 1; it is referring to animals, not to a person. IN TEN OF THE FIRST THIRTEEN TIMES SOUL (NEHPHESH) IS USED IT IS USED REFERRING TO ANIMALS, but the King James Version hides this by using different words, and most who read the King James Version never know it. Nehphesh is translated "soul" only one time of the first thirteen times it is used in the King James Version; but it is not translated "soul" in any of the first thirteen times it is used in the New King James Version, New American Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, or New International Version. Mankind has the same soul (life–nehphesh) as the other "living creatures." He does not differ from other living creatures (soul–nehphesh) by having a soul (nehphesh) that cannot die. His dominion over other living creatures (other nehpheshs–souls) is not his nehphesh.
    Mike Willis said expositors have generally appealed to Genesis 2:7 to prove that all men are born with and now have immortal spirits. However, in 1 Corinthians 15:45, Paul has clearly expounded the meaning of the Hebrew words nehphesh, chayyah. "The living soul" of Genesis 2:7 is the natural body of this passage. He said this corresponds with the book of Genesis itself because the same construction is used in Genesis 1:24 to describe animals. When Moses recorded that God breathed into man's nostrils the breath of life and he became a living soul, what the writer of Genesis was saying was that the dust of the earth began to have animal life and does not prove that a person has an immortal spirit (soul); rather it states that a person has animal life. All men possess animal life through Adam. A Commentary On Paul's First Epistle To the Corinthians, Page 578, 1979. For one who knows the Bible as he does and believes a person has an immortal soul, yet says, the living soul of Genesis 2:7 is the natural body, proves beyond doubt that a living soul is not an immortal inter part of a person.
    Guy N. Woods said the first time in Genesis 1:20 the word soul is used is from the Hebrew nehphesh where it is assigned to fish, birds, and creeping things. He said it is clear that the soul in these passages does not refer to anything peculiar to the constitution of man, but it signifies, as its usage denotes, and the lexicons affirm, any creature that breathes. "What Is The Soul Of Man," Gospel Advocate, 1985, Number 21.
    Adam Clarke: "Nephesh clayyah; a general term to express all creatures endued with animal life, in any of its infinitely varied gradations, from the half reasoning elephant down to the stupid potto, or lower still, to the polype, which seems equally to share the vegetable and animal life."
    In the first nine chapters of Genesis soul (nehphesh—Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”) is used more often with reference to animals than it is with reference to persons; it is the animal life, which both a person and animals have in common. How did the translators know when it changed to an invisible inter immortal part of a person, which animals do not have?
     Note: both man and animals are souls, living beings. We are a soul, not have a soul. If we have a soul, have a living being in us, then we are one living being with another living being living in us, a living being living in another living being. The doctrine that we have a soul living in us, and it is only this immortal deathless part of us that will be saved or tormented forever is the foundation of many of the errors that have divided the churches. That we are a soul (we are a living being), not we have a soul (not have a living being living in us) is one of the most fundamental and most misunderstood teaching in the bible.

(14) Genesis 12:5 "And the people (soul–nehphesh) whom they had acquired" New King James Version ("soul" in King James Version.) (15) Genesis 12:13 "That I (soul–nehphesh) may live because of you" New King James Version ("soul" in King James Version.) (16) Genesis 14:21 "Give me the persons (soul–nehphesh) and take the goods" King James Version. (17) Genesis 17:14 "That person (soul–nehphesh) shall be cut off" New King James Version. (18) Genesis 19:17 "Escape for your life (soul–nehphesh)" King James Version. (19) Genesis 19:19 "Saving my life (soul–nehphesh)" King James Version.

In the first nineteen times nehphesh is used it is translated “soul”

• Only three times in the King James Version • None in the New King James Version • None in the New American Standard Version • None in the New Revised Standard Version • None in the New International Version. (20) Genesis 19:20 "That my life (soul–nehphesh) may be saved" New American Standard Version (Translated soul for the fourth time in the King James Version and first time in the New King James Version). (21) Genesis 23:8 "If it be your mind (soul–nehphesh)" King James Version (22) Genesis 27:4 "So that I may bless you before I (soul–nehphesh) die" New Revised Standard Version. • "So that I (nehphesh) may bless you before I die" Revised Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version • "So that I (nehphesh) may give you my blessing before I die" New International Version • "So that I (nehphesh) may give you my blessing before I die" Revised English Bible • "To give you my (nehphesh) blessing before I die" Amplified Bible • "That I (nehphesh) may give you my special blessing before I die" New American Bible • "Then I (nehphesh) will bless you before I die" New Century Version • "Then I (nehphesh) will pronounce the blessing that belongs to you, my firstborn son, before I die" New Living Translation • "I (nehphesh) want to eat it once more and give you by blessing before I die" Contemporary English Version • "That I (nehphesh) may eat of it, (preparatory) to giving you (as my first-born) my blessing before I die" Amplified Bible • "That my soul (nehphesh) may bless thee before I die" King James Version. How would Isaac's son know if he were blessed by an "immaterial invisible" no substance part of a person that he could not see? By this time, hundreds of years after Genesis 1:1, the King James translators must have been desperate to be able to put "soul" into the Bible. Up to Genesis 27:4 for hundreds of years nehphesh is translated soul: • Only four times out of twenty-two in the King James Version. • Only one time out of twenty-two in the New King James Version. • None in The New International Version and most others translations.

    Nehphesh has been used 21 times before the New King James Version used "soul" for the first time, but even then the translators of many versions have chosen not to translate it "soul." In Genesis "nehphesh" is not an immortal "immaterial, invisible part of man," but it is the life, living creature, living being, any living thing, whether animals, fish, or man. If the translators had continued to translate nehphesh as life, living creature, living being, or person, as they did in the first twenty-one times it is used, there may not be the divisions there are today. Why did they not translate nehphesh into soul in the first part of the Bible that covers hundreds of years? Maybe because they thought it would have made animals have souls, and they did not believe animals could have souls. I find it difficult to see how anyone could not call their honesty into question for it is undeniable that they put their belief over the word of God and deliberately hid the truth from their readers; deliberately hid the truth from you.

(23) Genesis 32:30 "My life (soul–nehphesh) is preserved" King James Version. Most translations use "life" in this passage for an immortal soul could not perish and would not need to be preserved. (24) Genesis 34:3 • "His heart (soul–nehphesh) was drawn to Dinah" New International Version • "He was deeply attracted (nehphesh) to Dinah" New American Standard Version • "His soul (nehphesh) clave unto Dinah" King James Version. If this translation is not saying an immaterial immortal soul clave unto a material mortal being what is it saying? (25) Genesis 34:8 • "My son Shechem has his heart (nehphesh) on your daughter" New International Version • "My son Shechem is in love (nehphesh) with this girl" Revised English Bible • "The heart (nehphesh) of my son Shechem longs for your daughter" New Revised Standard Version • "The soul (nehphesh) of my son Shechem longeth for your daughter" King James Version. How did the translators think the father could know what an invisible, immaterial, inter part of his son was longing for? Did they think an immortal no substance soul was in love with a mortal person? (26) Genesis 35:18 • "As she breathed (nehphesh–soul) her last-for she was dying" New International Version. • "Then with her last breath, (nehphesh–soul) as she was dying" Revised English Bible • "As her soul (nehphesh) was departing (for she died)" King James Version (27) Genesis 36:6 "All the persons (nehphesh) of his house" King James Version (28) Genesis 37:21 "Let us not kill him (nehphesh)" King James Version. It was observe to the translators that they could not translate this nehphesh into soul, after all in immortal soul could not be killed. (29) Job 12:10 "In whose hand is the soul (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind." "The life of every living thing" New American Standard Bible (30) Job 41:21 "His breath (soul–nehphesh, used referring to an animal, possibly a crocodile)" (31) Isaiah 19:10 "All that make sluices and ponds for fish (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals, fish)" King James Version. Although nehphesh is in the Hebrew, many translations seems not to know what to do with it and just took it out or completely changed it for they did not want a soul to be in a pond. (32) Jeremiah 2:24 "A wild ass used to the wilderness, that snuffed up the wind in her (soul–nehphesh, used referring to an animal) desire" (33) Proverbs 27:7 “The full soul (nehphesh) loathes an honeycomb; but to the hungry soul (nehphesh)" ever bitter thing is sweet.” How could the translators think an immaterial something could be full or could be hungry for honey? • “A sated man (nehphesh) loathes honey, but to a famished man (nehphesh) any bitter thing is sweet” New American Standard Bible. • “He (nehphesh) who is full loathes honey, but to the hungry even what is bitter tastes sweet” New International Version. (34) Numbers 31:28 "And levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war which went out to battle: one soul (nehphesh–used referring to man and animals) of five hundred, both of the persons, and of the beeves, and of the asses and of the sheep." Of about 870 times “nephesh” is in the Old Testament this and Job 12:10 are the only passages where the King James translators translated “nephesh” as “soul” when it has reference to animals and is maybe that the only reason they did this time is that it has equal reference to people as it does to animals and they had no choice.

    "So carefully has the translation of nehphesh been guarded in relation to animals as 'souls,' that we can't help but wonder if it were not done intentionally to conceal the fact that animals are souls as well as men." David J. Heinizman, "Man Became A Living Soul"

(35 to 870) It would be to long to quote all the 870 times the Hebrew word nehphesh is in the Old Testament with just over one-half being translated "soul," about 473 times in King James Version. Not once do any of them imply anything about life beyond the grave or about the soul being immortal. Soul is in the New International Version Old Testament only 72 times. 1. Life about 122 times 2. Person about 26 times 3. Mind about 15 times 4. Heart about 15 times 5. Personal pronouns 44 + times (yourselves, themselves, her, me, he, his, himself) 6. All others, about 200 times (man, creature, living being, own, any, living thing, lives, the dead, dead body, kills, slays, slay him, mortally, discontented, ghost, breath, will, appetite, hearty desire, desire, pleasure, lust, deadly, fish). All 870 times have one thing in common, they are all associated with the activity of a living being, including dying, and it never implies anything about life after the death of the living being, they are all speaking of living beings that will die, not of an immortal deathless something in a living being. None of the 870 times are an immortal inter part of a person; they are a living being that can die, be killed, or be dead. Nehphesh is always associated with the activity of earthly breathing beings, both of person(s) and animal(s). It never implies anything about life beyond the grave. IT IS NEVER TRANSLATED "SPIRIT." Taken from chapter one of "A Resurrection to Immortality" by William West

External links

http://www/robertwr.com/life.html Is the soul immortal? William West

Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
wiki navigation
IronChariots.Org
Toolbox