Scientific foreknowledge in the Qur'an
Qur'an science is a defence of the origins of the Qur'an often cited by Muslims. Many Muslims believe that the Qur'an gives scientific information that it was impossible to get from other means than Allah. There are many claims that are made, such that the Qur'an predicted the Big Bang and the speed of light.
Origins of the universe and the Big Bang
Orbits of the planets
"GOD is the ONE who created the night, the day, the sun, and the moon. Each one is travelling in an orbit with its own motion" (21:33).
"Here an essential scientific fact is clearly stated, namely, the existence of the earth's, sun'so and moon's orbits; besides, a reference is made to the travelling of these celestial bodies in space with their own motion! A new concept had therefore been established in the Quran, hundreds of years before it was discovered by modern science." —Islami City Science Article
This verse does not actually say that the earth has an orbit, only that the sun and the moon do. This is consistent with the ancient idea that the earth was orbited by the sun.
Speed of light
Part of the Qur'an reads as follows:
"GOD rules the cosmic affair from the heavens to the earth. Then this affair travels, to Him(i.e.,through the whole universe) in one day, where the measure is one thousand years of your reckoning."(32:5) —Islami City Science Article
Using some mathematics, some Muslims have concluded that this verse is a prediction of the speed of light. Thus they have concluded that this makes the Qur'an true and inspired by Allah.
There are some problems with this argument. One problem is that the mathematics used applies to contemporary measures of the earth's and moon's speeds, when they would have been slightly different at the time the Qur'an was written. Another problem is that this verse is not unique to the Qur'an—it is incredibly similar to a verse in the Psalms.
Another major problem is the fact that some of the mathematics are invalid, as one number is introduced ad hoc to make the calculations work.
Even if the Qur'an did predict the speed of light, it is an invalid conclusion to reach that thus Allah had to have inspired it. One could say that aliens or the Devil had that knowledge.
Scientific inaccuracies and absurdities in the Qur'an