Scientific foreknowledge in the Qur'an
Qur'an science is a defence of the origins of the Qur'an often cited by Muslims. Many Muslims believe that the Qur'an gives scientific information that it was impossible to get from other means than Allah. There are many claims that are made, such that the Qur'an predicted the Big Bang and the speed of light.
Origins of the universe and the Big Bang
Orbits of the planets
"God hints at such orbit in the Quran: 'GOD is the ONE who created the night, the day, the sun, and the moon. Each one is travelling in an orbit with its own motion' (21:33). Here an essential scientific fact is clearly stated, namely, the existence of the earth's, sun'so and moon's orbits; besides, a reference is made to the travelling of these celestial bodies in space with their own motion! A new concept had therefore been established in the Quran, hundreds of years before it was discovered by modern science." —Islami City Science Article
- The verse says the Sun and Moon have orbits but says nothing of the Earth having one. This is consistent with geocentrism. This verse did not introduce a new cosmological idea.
Speed of light
Chapter 32 verse 5 of the Qur'an reads: "GOD rules the cosmic affair from the heavens to the earth. Then this affair travels, to Him(i.e.,through the whole universe) in one day, where the measure is one thousand years of your reckoning." Using some mathematics, some Muslims conclude that this verse predicts the speed of light and thus the Qur'an is true and inspired by Allah (such as Dr. Mansour Hassab-Elnaby in his article "A New Astronomical Quranic Method for The Determination Of The Greatest Speed C"). However, there are many problems with this argument.
- The verse is not unique to the Qur'an. One can find the same idea in Psalms 90:4.
- The mathematics use modern measurements rather than the slightly different measurements contemporary to the Qur'an. That is an unstated assumption in the mathematics that the author would be using modern, more-accurate, data rather than the data available to him. One could say that's begging the question.
- Some of the mathematics are invalid because an improvising, ad hoc, number was inserted so the calculation gave the desired result.
- Even if the Qur'an predicted the speed of light accurately, the conclusion "Allah inspired the verse" is a non sequitur because Satan, aliens, Atlanteans, and so on could've inspired it.