Religiously motivated medical neglect
A minority of Christian denominations teach that prayer is not only helpful for those with illness but that it should be used instead of conventional medical care. Of course, this leads to many deaths from common but preventable illnesses and conditions. Of particular concern are children of religious parents that do not seek medical support and are often not publicly reported. At study in 1998 looked into religiously motivated medical neglect deaths of 172 children and concluded that most deaths were probably preventable.  However, the scale of the problem is difficult to estimate because of the secrecy surrounding these fatalities.
Most Christian denominations do not oppose medical care or do so only for specific treatments.
In many areas of the United States, there are laws that protect parents who rely on prayer or faith healing alone from prosecution.  If the same actions were motivated by other reasons, they would be considered child abuse. This is another harm caused by the so-called freedom of conscience.
Examples in Christianity
- Jehovah's Witnesses refuse blood transfusions. 
- Christian Science adherents often rely on prayer rather than medical assistance, even for serious illness.
- Many Christian denominations, notably the Catholic Church, oppose contraception even though it helps prevents the spread of STDs such as HIV.
- Scientology opposes conventional mental health care. 
- Some Christians oppose vaccines from STDs. 
- Catholic hospital denies Michigan woman treatment on religious grounds
- In 2012, Savita Halappanavar died of a miscarriage because she was refused an abortion to save her life, due to Catholic policies in Ireland. 
- In 2008, Kara Neumann died of treatable diabetes after her parents, who were followers of the Unleavened Bread Ministries, did not get medical help. 
- Followers of Christ Church often use prayer rather than medicine, such as in the case of Alex Morris in 1989. 
- Children's Healthcare is a Legal Duty, charity campaigning against religious and cult medical neglect.