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Naturalism may refer to any of various philosophical positions regarding nature, the physical world, and reality, including:

A naturalist may refer to one who holds any of these philosophical positions, but most often refers to one who studies or enjoys nature.


Counter arguments

Ontological argument from reason

"Today, I want to focus on the ontological argument from reason, which asserts that there cannot be reasoning in a naturalistic world, because reasoning requires libertarian free will, and this in turn requires a unified, enduring self with active power. [1]"

Evolutionary/epistemological argument

"The most famous version of the argument from reason is epistemological: if naturalism were true, we could not be justified in believing it.[1]"
"To have trustworthy convictions, we have to have properly functioning noetic equipment (i.e., a brain, spinal cord, sensory apparatus, etc., that recognize reality). But can a strictly materialistic, non-teleological, evolutionary process produce such reliable equipment? [...] In order to accept the naturalistic evolutionary explanation for the development of our noetic equipment we have to be agnostic about its reliability. All we would really know is that it works for evolutionary purposes, not for the purposes of discerning truth from falsehood. Evolutionary naturalism, it turns out, is a self-defeating argument. If we believe the theory, we have no reason to believe the theory is true. [2]"


  1. 1.0 1.1 [1]
  2. [2]
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