Iron Chariots Wiki:Requested pages/List of nontheists (politics and law)

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{{Lists of atheists from Wikipedia|List of atheists (politics and law)|September 20, 2008}}
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{{Lists of nontheists from Wikipedia|List of nontheists (politics and law)|February 2, 2010}}
{{main|Lists of atheists}}
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===Politics and law===
 
===Politics and law===
 
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* [[Guy Aldred]] (1886&ndash;1963): English anarchist communist and a prominent member of the [[Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation]].<ref>"The defendant, in the witness-box, declared that the meeting was quite orderly, and there were cries of "Shame" when he was arrested. He denied the charges. Aldred said he was an Atheist and a Socialist." 'Hyde Park Speech Prosecution. Evidence For The Defence', ''The Times'', Wednesday, Mar 04, 1925; pg. 5; Issue 43901; col G.</ref>
 
* [[Guy Aldred]] (1886&ndash;1963): English anarchist communist and a prominent member of the [[Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation]].<ref>"The defendant, in the witness-box, declared that the meeting was quite orderly, and there were cries of "Shame" when he was arrested. He denied the charges. Aldred said he was an Atheist and a Socialist." 'Hyde Park Speech Prosecution. Evidence For The Defence', ''The Times'', Wednesday, Mar 04, 1925; pg. 5; Issue 43901; col G.</ref>
 
* [[Subhashini Ali]] (19??&ndash;): [[India]]n [[Marxist]] politician and President of the [[All India Democratic Women's Association]].<ref>"There are religions that have very rigid rules and there are others that don't. Religion is something that I, as a person, am not interested in. I have always been an atheist. My parents were atheists. It doesn't bother me if somebody is religious. My problem is when religion is used to institutionalise other things." [http://www.rediff.com/news/2001/aug/08inter.htm The Rediff Interview/ Subhasini Ali], August 8, 2001 (accessed April 21, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Subhashini Ali]] (19??&ndash;): [[India]]n [[Marxist]] politician and President of the [[All India Democratic Women's Association]].<ref>"There are religions that have very rigid rules and there are others that don't. Religion is something that I, as a person, am not interested in. I have always been an atheist. My parents were atheists. It doesn't bother me if somebody is religious. My problem is when religion is used to institutionalise other things." [http://www.rediff.com/news/2001/aug/08inter.htm The Rediff Interview/ Subhasini Ali], August 8, 2001 (accessed April 21, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Graham Allen (politician)|Graham Allen]] (1953&ndash;): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician and Member [[Parliament of the United Kingdom|Member of Parliament]] for [[Nottingham North (UK Parliament constituency)|Nottingham North]], and a Distinguished Supporter of the [[British Humanist Association]] and an honorary associate of the [[National Secular Society]].<ref>Edward Leigh, Gainsborough MP: "That point was made in the excellent speech by the hon. Member for Nottingham, North (Mr. Allen), who is a convinced atheist—perhaps a member of the National Secular Society; I do not know." [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmhansrd/vo050621/debtext/50621-28.htm House of Commons Hansard, June 21, 2005: Column 728] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Graham Allen (politician)|Graham Allen]] (1953&ndash;): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician and Member [[Parliament of the United Kingdom|Member of Parliament]] for [[Nottingham North (UK Parliament constituency)|Nottingham North]], and a Distinguished Supporter of the [[British Humanist Association]] and an honorary associate of the [[National Secular Society]].<ref>Edward Leigh, Gainsborough MP: "That point was made in the excellent speech by the hon. Member for Nottingham, North (Mr. Allen), who is a convinced atheist—perhaps a member of the National Secular Society; I do not know." [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmhansrd/vo050621/debtext/50621-28.htm House of Commons Hansard, June 21, 2005: Column 728] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
* [[Salvador Allende]] (1908&ndash;1973): [[Chile]]an Marxist politician, President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup d'état of September 11, 1973.<ref>The inauguration was, however, followed by an ecumenical service in the cathedral, since, as the new President, an atheist and freemason, has already explained, many of those who voted for his "Popular Unity" programme are sincere Roman Catholics." Richard Wigg, '75 states witness Allende pledge to democracy', ''The Times'', November 4, 1970; pg. 9; Issue 58014; col E.</ref>
 
 
* [[Luisa Isabel Alvarez de Toledo, 21st Duchess of Medina Sidonia]] (1936&ndash;2008): Spanish duchess, holder of the ducal title [[Medina-Sidonia]], known as the "Red Duchess".<ref>"The dictator Francisco Franco jailed her for championing workers, who nicknamed her the "Red Duchess". She challenged Spain's official history, arguing that Columbus didn't discover America. She was an atheist, a republican and reckoned her 13th-century ancestor Guzman el Bueno, ennobled for fighting the Moors, was a north African whose grandmother was black." Elizabeth Nash, 'Red Duchess a rebel to the last as she snubs family and leaves all to wife', ''The Independent'' (London), May 2, 2008, World News, Pg. 26.</ref>
 
* [[Luisa Isabel Alvarez de Toledo, 21st Duchess of Medina Sidonia]] (1936&ndash;2008): Spanish duchess, holder of the ducal title [[Medina-Sidonia]], known as the "Red Duchess".<ref>"The dictator Francisco Franco jailed her for championing workers, who nicknamed her the "Red Duchess". She challenged Spain's official history, arguing that Columbus didn't discover America. She was an atheist, a republican and reckoned her 13th-century ancestor Guzman el Bueno, ennobled for fighting the Moors, was a north African whose grandmother was black." Elizabeth Nash, 'Red Duchess a rebel to the last as she snubs family and leaves all to wife', ''The Independent'' (London), May 2, 2008, World News, Pg. 26.</ref>
 
* [[William Crawford Anderson]] (1877&ndash;1919): British socialist politician, a founder member of the [[Union of Democratic Control]].<ref>"His mother was an intelligent and widely read woman of strong, radical, Presbyterian views who encouraged William to read extensively and passed on a love of literature which stayed with him long after he was converted to free-thinking atheism." Joseph Melling, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/47322 'Anderson, William Crawford (1877–1919)], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[William Crawford Anderson]] (1877&ndash;1919): British socialist politician, a founder member of the [[Union of Democratic Control]].<ref>"His mother was an intelligent and widely read woman of strong, radical, Presbyterian views who encouraged William to read extensively and passed on a love of literature which stayed with him long after he was converted to free-thinking atheism." Joseph Melling, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/47322 'Anderson, William Crawford (1877–1919)], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Julio Anguita]] (1941&ndash;): Spanish politician and a former teacher, Mayor of Córdoba 1979&ndash;1988, then General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain 1988&ndash;1998.<ref>"Señor Julio Anguita, the mayor, who is a self-confessed atheist indifferent to both religions, has invoked Spain's 1978 constitution which separates church and state [...]". Richard Wigg, 'Córdoba mayor upsets the bishop', ''The Times'', January 9, 1981; pg. 4; Issue 60821; col E.</ref>
 
* [[Julio Anguita]] (1941&ndash;): Spanish politician and a former teacher, Mayor of Córdoba 1979&ndash;1988, then General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain 1988&ndash;1998.<ref>"Señor Julio Anguita, the mayor, who is a self-confessed atheist indifferent to both religions, has invoked Spain's 1978 constitution which separates church and state [...]". Richard Wigg, 'Córdoba mayor upsets the bishop', ''The Times'', January 9, 1981; pg. 4; Issue 60821; col E.</ref>
* [[Carmen Argibay]] (1939&ndash;): Argentinian lawyer, a member of the Argentine Supreme Court of Justice, the first woman to be nominated for the Court by a democratic government in Argentina.<ref>Interviewer: "In interviews you have described yourself as "more left than right" and "a militant atheist" in a country that is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic, and where the political left continues to be a minority. Don't you think that most of the public might take your statements as a sign that you might be biased on certain issues?"<br />
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* [[Carmen Argibay]] (1939&ndash;): Argentinian lawyer, a member of the Argentine Supreme Court of Justice, the first woman to be nominated for the Court by a democratic government in Argentina.<ref>Interviewer: "In interviews you have described yourself as "more left than right" and "a militant atheist" in a country that is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic, and where the political left continues to be a minority. Don't you think that most of the public might take your statements as a sign that you might be biased on certain issues?"
 
Argibay: "On the contrary -- if one reads my declarations correctly. I believe that saying up front who one is or what one thinks is an indication of honesty, which is the first step towards impartiality. My beliefs, or lack thereof, should not interfere in the judicial decisions I take." Diana Cariboni, '[http://ipsnews.net/africa/print.asp?idnews=22030 Single Woman, Atheist, Heads to Seat on High Court]', IPS News, January 21, 2004.</ref>
 
Argibay: "On the contrary -- if one reads my declarations correctly. I believe that saying up front who one is or what one thinks is an indication of honesty, which is the first step towards impartiality. My beliefs, or lack thereof, should not interfere in the judicial decisions I take." Diana Cariboni, '[http://ipsnews.net/africa/print.asp?idnews=22030 Single Woman, Atheist, Heads to Seat on High Court]', IPS News, January 21, 2004.</ref>
 
* [[Clement Attlee]] 1st Earl Attlee, [[Order of the Garter|KG]], [[Order of Merit|OM]], [[Order of the Companions of Honour|CH]], [[Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council|PC]] (1883&ndash;1967): [[Prime Minister of the United Kingdom]] from 1945 to 1951, under whose government the [[National Health Service]] and [[Welfare State]] were established.<ref>"[...] then in 1896 at the age of thirteen went on, like all the boys in the family, to Haileybury College. Here he confirmed an unobtrusive atheism—he became disenchanted with church attendance and religious observance—and played rugby and cricket with the handicap of his small stature and lack of any real skill, but enjoyed the rifle corps." R. C. Whiting, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30498 'Attlee, Clement Richard, first Earl Attlee (1883–1967)'], Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>  
 
* [[Clement Attlee]] 1st Earl Attlee, [[Order of the Garter|KG]], [[Order of Merit|OM]], [[Order of the Companions of Honour|CH]], [[Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council|PC]] (1883&ndash;1967): [[Prime Minister of the United Kingdom]] from 1945 to 1951, under whose government the [[National Health Service]] and [[Welfare State]] were established.<ref>"[...] then in 1896 at the age of thirteen went on, like all the boys in the family, to Haileybury College. Here he confirmed an unobtrusive atheism—he became disenchanted with church attendance and religious observance—and played rugby and cricket with the handicap of his small stature and lack of any real skill, but enjoyed the rifle corps." R. C. Whiting, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30498 'Attlee, Clement Richard, first Earl Attlee (1883–1967)'], Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>  
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* [[Edward Aveling]] (1849&ndash;1898): English [[Marxist]] activist and partner of [[Karl Marx]]'s daughter [[Eleanor Marx|Eleanor]].<ref>"His failed marriage aside, he was on a climbing path of conventional success and acclaim, which he left in 1879 when he abandoned his application for the chair of comparative anatomy because the post required its holder to profess Christianity. In July 1879 he made a public pronouncement that he had been an atheist for two or three years. In June 1881 he lost his lectureship, largely because of his atheism." C. A. Creffield: 'Aveling, Edward Bibbens (1849–1898)', ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/40929] (accessed April 29, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Edward Aveling]] (1849&ndash;1898): English [[Marxist]] activist and partner of [[Karl Marx]]'s daughter [[Eleanor Marx|Eleanor]].<ref>"His failed marriage aside, he was on a climbing path of conventional success and acclaim, which he left in 1879 when he abandoned his application for the chair of comparative anatomy because the post required its holder to profess Christianity. In July 1879 he made a public pronouncement that he had been an atheist for two or three years. In June 1881 he lost his lectureship, largely because of his atheism." C. A. Creffield: 'Aveling, Edward Bibbens (1849–1898)', ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/40929] (accessed April 29, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Uri Avnery]] (1923&ndash;): German-born Israeli [[journalist]], [[Left-wing politics|left-wing]] [[Israeli peace camp|peace activist]], and former [[Knesset]] member.<ref>"Well, I myself am a 100% atheist. And I am increasingly worried that the Israeli-Palestinian struggle, which dominates our entire life, is assuming a more and more religious character." Uri Avnery, [http://archive.ramallahonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2382 A War of Religions? God Forbid!], ''Ramallah Online'' February 19, 2007(?) (accessed April 28, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Uri Avnery]] (1923&ndash;): German-born Israeli [[journalist]], [[Left-wing politics|left-wing]] [[Israeli peace camp|peace activist]], and former [[Knesset]] member.<ref>"Well, I myself am a 100% atheist. And I am increasingly worried that the Israeli-Palestinian struggle, which dominates our entire life, is assuming a more and more religious character." Uri Avnery, [http://archive.ramallahonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2382 A War of Religions? God Forbid!], ''Ramallah Online'' February 19, 2007(?) (accessed April 28, 2008).</ref>
* [[Michelle Bachelet]] (1951&ndash;): Chilean politician, the current President of Chile and the first woman to hold this position in the country's history.<ref>"A paediatrician turned politician, Ms Bachelet is an atheist single mother with three children by two different partners - which makes her an odd choice in a macho and profoundly Catholic country." Jen Ross, 'Single mother becomes Chile's first female president', ''The Independent'' (London), January 16, 2006, News, Pg. 25.</ref><ref>"Given this context, it is nothing short of extraordinary - even revolutionary - that the clear front-runner in the presidential vote being held on Sunday is Michelle Bachelet, a divorced mother of three who is an atheist and a member of the Socialist Party." Rafael Gumucio, '[http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/09/opinion/09gumucio.html Señora Presidente?]', ''New York Times'', December 9, 2005 (accessed July 14, 2008).</ref>
 
 
*[[Charles T. Beaird]] (1922&mdash;2006): Liberal [[Republican Party (United States)]] member and newspaper publisher.<ref>[http://www.shreveporttimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/dclassifieds?Dato=20060420&Kategori=OBITUARIES&Class=1&Type=CAT2000&Lopenr=604200326&Selected=7 Obituary]: "He had many friends across a wide spectrum of economic, social and religious backgrounds, all of whom he respected and honored. While Carolyn [his wife] was a devoted Presbyterian, he was a 'nontheist,'"</ref>
 
*[[Charles T. Beaird]] (1922&mdash;2006): Liberal [[Republican Party (United States)]] member and newspaper publisher.<ref>[http://www.shreveporttimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/dclassifieds?Dato=20060420&Kategori=OBITUARIES&Class=1&Type=CAT2000&Lopenr=604200326&Selected=7 Obituary]: "He had many friends across a wide spectrum of economic, social and religious backgrounds, all of whom he respected and honored. While Carolyn [his wife] was a devoted Presbyterian, he was a 'nontheist,'"</ref>
 
* [[Leo Blair (senior)|Leo Blair]] (1923&ndash;): Barrister and father of [[Tony Blair]], the former [[Prime Minister]] of the United Kingdom.<ref>"The pupil said he had read Richard Dawkins's book The God Delusion and it had helped turn him into an atheist. Mr Blair looked put out and eventually spluttered something about his new Tony Blair Faith Foundation also being about understanding people who had no god. His father Leo was a ''militant'' atheist, he added." Tim Walker, 'Pupil rattles Blair', ''Daily Telegraph'' April 5, 2008.</ref>
 
* [[Leo Blair (senior)|Leo Blair]] (1923&ndash;): Barrister and father of [[Tony Blair]], the former [[Prime Minister]] of the United Kingdom.<ref>"The pupil said he had read Richard Dawkins's book The God Delusion and it had helped turn him into an atheist. Mr Blair looked put out and eventually spluttered something about his new Tony Blair Faith Foundation also being about understanding people who had no god. His father Leo was a ''militant'' atheist, he added." Tim Walker, 'Pupil rattles Blair', ''Daily Telegraph'' April 5, 2008.</ref>
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* [[Alastair Campbell]] (1957&ndash;): [[Public relations|Director of Communications and Strategy]] for the [[Prime Minister of the United Kingdom]] from 1997 to 2003.<ref>"You are an atheist. Tony Blair is a devout Christian. Did that make you feel uncomfortable?" Campbell answering questions in [[The Independent]] newspaper ''[http://www.secularism.org.uk/comingoutasatheistalistaircampbe.html]''.</ref><ref>"Mr Campbell, who is an atheist, has been keen to stop Mr Blair discussing his faith since 1996, when the Labour leader gave an extensive interview on the subject in The Telegraph which proved highly controversial."  
 
* [[Alastair Campbell]] (1957&ndash;): [[Public relations|Director of Communications and Strategy]] for the [[Prime Minister of the United Kingdom]] from 1997 to 2003.<ref>"You are an atheist. Tony Blair is a devout Christian. Did that make you feel uncomfortable?" Campbell answering questions in [[The Independent]] newspaper ''[http://www.secularism.org.uk/comingoutasatheistalistaircampbe.html]''.</ref><ref>"Mr Campbell, who is an atheist, has been keen to stop Mr Blair discussing his faith since 1996, when the Labour leader gave an extensive interview on the subject in The Telegraph which proved highly controversial."  
 
''[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/05/04/nblair04.xml]'' ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]''.</ref>  
 
''[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/05/04/nblair04.xml]'' ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]''.</ref>  
* [[Douglas_Campbell_%28Michigan_politician%29 | Douglas Campbell]] (1959&ndash;): Atheist advocate and member of the Green Party of Michigan. Member, national advisory board, Godless Americans Political Action Committee<ref>Godless Americans Political Action Committee national advisory board[http://www.godlessamericans.org/pacadvisoryboard.php]</ref>. Co-founder, Michigan Godless Americans Political Action Committee.<ref>Michigan Godless Americans Political Action Committee[http://migampac.org/]</ref>  Green Party candidate for [[Michigan_gubernatorial_election%2C_2006 | Governor of Michigan]], 2002 & 2006.
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* [[Douglas Campbell (Michigan politician)|Douglas Campbell]] (1959&ndash;): Atheist advocate and member of the Green Party of Michigan. Member, national advisory board, Godless Americans Political Action Committee<ref>[http://www.godlessamericans.org/pacadvisoryboard.php Godless Americans Political Action Committee national advisory board]</ref>. Co-founder, Michigan Godless Americans Political Action Committee.<ref>[http://migampac.org/ Michigan Godless Americans Political Action Committee]</ref>  Green Party candidate for [[Michigan gubernatorial election, 2006|Governor of Michigan]], 2002 & 2006.
 
* [[Michael Cashman]] (1950&ndash;): British actor turned [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician, a Member of the European Parliament since 1999.<ref>"Queer-boy, soap-star, luvvie, Blairite, Michael is also, for the final flourish, something of a Buddhist. 'It seems to me a wonderfully selfless religion - and of course the only one which has had no war fought on its behalf.' He was brought up a Catholic, 'but not any more. People who think you have to do things now for reward later might feel faced with a comeuppance that, as an atheist, I don't have to deal with. If it turns out that there is a God, and I meet her, I think she'll say: 'Well... you were pretty fearless, and you did what you thought was right. I've got a place for you.' " Victoria Coren, 'The Monday interview: Michael Cashman: Straight talker', ''The Guardian'', August 24, 1998, Pg. 14.</ref>
 
* [[Michael Cashman]] (1950&ndash;): British actor turned [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician, a Member of the European Parliament since 1999.<ref>"Queer-boy, soap-star, luvvie, Blairite, Michael is also, for the final flourish, something of a Buddhist. 'It seems to me a wonderfully selfless religion - and of course the only one which has had no war fought on its behalf.' He was brought up a Catholic, 'but not any more. People who think you have to do things now for reward later might feel faced with a comeuppance that, as an atheist, I don't have to deal with. If it turns out that there is a God, and I meet her, I think she'll say: 'Well... you were pretty fearless, and you did what you thought was right. I've got a place for you.' " Victoria Coren, 'The Monday interview: Michael Cashman: Straight talker', ''The Guardian'', August 24, 1998, Pg. 14.</ref>
 
* [[Colin Challen]] (1953&ndash;): British [[The Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] [[politician]].<ref>"Opposition Members said that many Labour Members hate religion. Perhaps they think that those who support the new clause are atheists. Will my hon. Friend accept my assurance that it is possible to be an atheist and to admire religion? It is even possible to be an atheist and to study it, as I chose to do when I went to university." Colin Challen,  
 
* [[Colin Challen]] (1953&ndash;): British [[The Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] [[politician]].<ref>"Opposition Members said that many Labour Members hate religion. Perhaps they think that those who support the new clause are atheists. Will my hon. Friend accept my assurance that it is possible to be an atheist and to admire religion? It is even possible to be an atheist and to study it, as I chose to do when I went to university." Colin Challen,  
 
[http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmhansrd/vo020206/debtext/20206-31.htm House of Commons Hansard, 6 Feb 2002: Column 952] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 
[http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmhansrd/vo020206/debtext/20206-31.htm House of Commons Hansard, 6 Feb 2002: Column 952] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
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*[[Charles Clarke]] (1950&ndash;): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour Party]] [[politician]], a [[Member of Parliament]] since 1997 and former [[Secretary of State for the Home Department|Home Secretary]].<ref>" Home Secretary Charles Clarke has revealed he is "totally opposed" to the concept of creationism. The politician, addressing a faith conference, said he does not believe in God, adding: "I believe that science has to be the basis of where we go and one of the greatest scientists was [Charles] Darwin." '[http://news.scotsman.com/creationism/I-dont-believe-in-God.2760840.jp I don't believe in God, says Clarke]', ''Edinburgh Evening News'', 22 March 2006 (accessed 18 February 2009).</ref>
 
* [[Nick Clegg]] (1967&ndash;): Leader of the [[Liberal Democrats]] since 2007.<ref>Asked directly in the interview on BBC Radio 5 Live, "Do you believe in God?", Mr Clegg replied simply: "No." [http://news.scotsman.com/politics/I-don39t-believe-in-God.3607087.jp I don't believe in God, says new Lib Dem chief], ''The Scotsman'', December 20, 2007 (accessed April 1, 2008)</ref><ref>'''Q:''' You had the courage publicly to declare that you are an atheist. How does your secular outlook affect your political views? - Simon Maynard. '''A:''' I have tremendous respect for people with faith, it's just not something I have myself. But I think it's absolutely vital to keep politics and faith separate. Government shouldn't make moral judgements about what people do or do not believe: faith is a private, personal decision that politicians should not interfere with. [http://www.spectator.co.uk/coffeehouse/591061/clegg-responds-part-ii.thtml Clegg responds - Part II], ''Spectator'' Coffee House, April 4, 2008 (accessed April 15, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Nick Clegg]] (1967&ndash;): Leader of the [[Liberal Democrats]] since 2007.<ref>Asked directly in the interview on BBC Radio 5 Live, "Do you believe in God?", Mr Clegg replied simply: "No." [http://news.scotsman.com/politics/I-don39t-believe-in-God.3607087.jp I don't believe in God, says new Lib Dem chief], ''The Scotsman'', December 20, 2007 (accessed April 1, 2008)</ref><ref>'''Q:''' You had the courage publicly to declare that you are an atheist. How does your secular outlook affect your political views? - Simon Maynard. '''A:''' I have tremendous respect for people with faith, it's just not something I have myself. But I think it's absolutely vital to keep politics and faith separate. Government shouldn't make moral judgements about what people do or do not believe: faith is a private, personal decision that politicians should not interfere with. [http://www.spectator.co.uk/coffeehouse/591061/clegg-responds-part-ii.thtml Clegg responds - Part II], ''Spectator'' Coffee House, April 4, 2008 (accessed April 15, 2008).</ref>
 
*[[Dimitris Christofias]] (1946&ndash;): [[Greek Cypriot]] politician, President of [[Cyprus]] 2008-Present.<ref>"For instance, Chrysostomos might argue that certain self-declared atheists should not be allowed to vote. It's worth recalling that a couple of years ago, the leader of the communist party AKEL Demetris Christofias said he was an atheist." Elias Hazou, [http://www.cyprus-mail.com/news/main.php?id=27937&archive=1 'Church elections: how it works'], ''Cyprus Mail'' archive article, September 17, 2006 (accessed May 15, 2008).</ref>
 
*[[Dimitris Christofias]] (1946&ndash;): [[Greek Cypriot]] politician, President of [[Cyprus]] 2008-Present.<ref>"For instance, Chrysostomos might argue that certain self-declared atheists should not be allowed to vote. It's worth recalling that a couple of years ago, the leader of the communist party AKEL Demetris Christofias said he was an atheist." Elias Hazou, [http://www.cyprus-mail.com/news/main.php?id=27937&archive=1 'Church elections: how it works'], ''Cyprus Mail'' archive article, September 17, 2006 (accessed May 15, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Georges Clemenceau]] (1841&ndash;1929): French statesman, physician and journalist, prime minister of France 1906-1909 and 1917-1920. Led France during World War I and was one of the major voices behind the Treaty of Versailles.<ref>"M. Clemenceau does not belong to the Socialist party, but is nevertheless a convinced atheist. He opposes zealously the idea of God, and preaches revolt against Him." Eugne Tavernier, 'The Religious Question In France. I. A French Catholic's View', ''The Times'', November 6, 1909; p. 5; Issue 39110; col F.</ref>  
 
* [[Georges Clemenceau]] (1841&ndash;1929): French statesman, physician and journalist, prime minister of France 1906-1909 and 1917-1920. Led France during World War I and was one of the major voices behind the Treaty of Versailles.<ref>"M. Clemenceau does not belong to the Socialist party, but is nevertheless a convinced atheist. He opposes zealously the idea of God, and preaches revolt against Him." Eugne Tavernier, 'The Religious Question In France. I. A French Catholic's View', ''The Times'', November 6, 1909; p. 5; Issue 39110; col F.</ref>  
 
* [[Robin Cook]] (1946&ndash;2005): Secretary of State for Foreign & Commonwealth Affairs of the [[United Kingdom|UK]] (1997&ndash;2001), whose funeral service was held in the [[High Kirk]] of [[Scotland]], where he was described as a "[[Presbyterian]] atheist."<ref>[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-1733157,00.html Labour Party at prayer salutes Cook the atheist], by Magnus Linklater, ''The Times'', August 13, 2005.</ref>
 
* [[Robin Cook]] (1946&ndash;2005): Secretary of State for Foreign & Commonwealth Affairs of the [[United Kingdom|UK]] (1997&ndash;2001), whose funeral service was held in the [[High Kirk]] of [[Scotland]], where he was described as a "[[Presbyterian]] atheist."<ref>[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-1733157,00.html Labour Party at prayer salutes Cook the atheist], by Magnus Linklater, ''The Times'', August 13, 2005.</ref>
* [[James Connolly]] (1868&ndash;1916): Irish [[socialist]] leader.<ref>"When he left, after numerous rows with American socialists—De Leon ultimately dubbed the atheist Connolly a Jesuit agent; Connolly alleged De Leon was 'purposely doing the work of the capitalist class' (Connolly to Matheson, 8 Nov 1900, Dudley Edwards, 63)—though the class struggle was still his main concern he had developed a new sympathy with cultural and political nationalism." Ruth Dudley Edwards: 'Connolly, James (1868–1916)', ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/37308] (accessed April 30, 2008).</ref>
 
 
* [[Vaso Čubrilović]] (1897&ndash;1990): Bosnian student, a conspirator in the assassination of [[Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria]].<ref>"The philosophical and political differences among the conspirators were expressed at the trial. This was particularly obvious between the two Cubrilović brothers. [...] Veljko was a deeply religious man, who spent the whole night before the execution reading St. John's Gospel; Vaso was an atheist, scandalising judges with his statements; [...]." 'Back to Sarajevo After 50 Years By Professor Vladimir Dedijer of Harvard', ''The Times'', June 26, 1964; pg. 13; Issue 56048; col F.</ref>
 
* [[Vaso Čubrilović]] (1897&ndash;1990): Bosnian student, a conspirator in the assassination of [[Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria]].<ref>"The philosophical and political differences among the conspirators were expressed at the trial. This was particularly obvious between the two Cubrilović brothers. [...] Veljko was a deeply religious man, who spent the whole night before the execution reading St. John's Gospel; Vaso was an atheist, scandalising judges with his statements; [...]." 'Back to Sarajevo After 50 Years By Professor Vladimir Dedijer of Harvard', ''The Times'', June 26, 1964; pg. 13; Issue 56048; col F.</ref>
 
* [[Clarence Darrow]] (1857&ndash;1938): American lawyer and leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union, best known for defending John T. Scopes in the so-called [[Monkey Trial]] (1925).<ref>"I don't believe in God because I don't believe in Mother Goose." Clarence Darrow, speech in Toronto, 1930, as quoted in ''Breaking the Last Taboo'' (1996) by James A. Haught.</ref><ref>"I say that religion is the belief in future life and in God. I don't believe in either." Clarence Darrow, 'Law is 'Horrible' says Darrow, 79', ''New York Times'', April 19, 1936.</ref><ref>"In spite of all the yearnings of men, no one can produce a single fact or reason to support the belief in God and in personal immortality." Clarence Darrow, ''Sign'' magazine, May 1938 (from ''Rawson's Dictionary of American Quotations'' via [http://www.credoreference.com credoreference.com], accessed August 1, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Clarence Darrow]] (1857&ndash;1938): American lawyer and leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union, best known for defending John T. Scopes in the so-called [[Monkey Trial]] (1925).<ref>"I don't believe in God because I don't believe in Mother Goose." Clarence Darrow, speech in Toronto, 1930, as quoted in ''Breaking the Last Taboo'' (1996) by James A. Haught.</ref><ref>"I say that religion is the belief in future life and in God. I don't believe in either." Clarence Darrow, 'Law is 'Horrible' says Darrow, 79', ''New York Times'', April 19, 1936.</ref><ref>"In spite of all the yearnings of men, no one can produce a single fact or reason to support the belief in God and in personal immortality." Clarence Darrow, ''Sign'' magazine, May 1938 (from ''Rawson's Dictionary of American Quotations'' via [http://www.credoreference.com credoreference.com], accessed August 1, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Meghnad Desai, Baron Desai]] (1940&ndash;): British economist, writer and [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"Lord Desai: Like my noble friend Lord Dormand I am an atheist and therefore should not speak too much about religion, but I am glad that the C[hurch] of E[ngland], having lost money in real estate, is now interested in sex and making money. That is always welcome." [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo980604/text/80604-06.htm Lords Hansard, 4 Jun 1998: Column 481] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Meghnad Desai, Baron Desai]] (1940&ndash;): British economist, writer and [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"Lord Desai: Like my noble friend Lord Dormand I am an atheist and therefore should not speak too much about religion, but I am glad that the C[hurch] of E[ngland], having lost money in real estate, is now interested in sex and making money. That is always welcome." [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo980604/text/80604-06.htm Lords Hansard, 4 Jun 1998: Column 481] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
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* [[Donald Dewar]] (1937&ndash;2000): British Politician and Scottish first minister, from May [[1999]] until his sudden death in October [[2000]]<ref>http://www.dailymail.co.uk/debate/columnists/article-484827/Gordon-upsets-laws.html</ref>
 
* [[Frank Dobson]] (1940&ndash;): British [[the Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] [[politician]] and [[member of Parliament]] for [[Holborn and St. Pancras (UK Parliament constituency)|Holborn and St. Pancras]].<ref>In a House of Commons debate on historic churches, [[Patrick Cormack|Sir Patrick Cormack]] said: "The chairman of the historic churches and chapels group, the right hon. Member for Holborn and St. Pancras (Frank Dobson) [...] is a self-proclaimed atheist but shares the affection [for historic churches] that I believe that the Minister has [...]" [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200607/cmhansrd/cm061214/debtext/61214-0023.htm House of Commons Hansard, 14 Dec 2006: Column 1132] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Frank Dobson]] (1940&ndash;): British [[the Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] [[politician]] and [[member of Parliament]] for [[Holborn and St. Pancras (UK Parliament constituency)|Holborn and St. Pancras]].<ref>In a House of Commons debate on historic churches, [[Patrick Cormack|Sir Patrick Cormack]] said: "The chairman of the historic churches and chapels group, the right hon. Member for Holborn and St. Pancras (Frank Dobson) [...] is a self-proclaimed atheist but shares the affection [for historic churches] that I believe that the Minister has [...]" [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200607/cmhansrd/cm061214/debtext/61214-0023.htm House of Commons Hansard, 14 Dec 2006: Column 1132] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Jack Dormand]] (1919&ndash;2003): British educationist and [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"As the most insistent of atheists in the House of Lords, after he arrived there in 1987, Dormand demanded equal rights for the non-religious fifth of the population. As a former teacher and education officer, he wanted religions and humanism described neutrally in schools, not propagated. [...] But "after some years of very considerable thought", he became an atheist, though "I certainly attempt, although I fail regularly, to live by the Christian ethic." He became more overtly atheist in the Lords than he had been in the Commons, where he had to worry about his religious constituents. [...] He started teaching at 21, telling his headmaster that, as an atheist, he was not really qualified to take religious education." Andrew Roth, 'Obituary: Lord Dormand of Easington: Genial chairman during Labour's hard times', ''The Guardian'', December 20, 2003, Pg. 21.</ref>
 
* [[Jack Dormand]] (1919&ndash;2003): British educationist and [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"As the most insistent of atheists in the House of Lords, after he arrived there in 1987, Dormand demanded equal rights for the non-religious fifth of the population. As a former teacher and education officer, he wanted religions and humanism described neutrally in schools, not propagated. [...] But "after some years of very considerable thought", he became an atheist, though "I certainly attempt, although I fail regularly, to live by the Christian ethic." He became more overtly atheist in the Lords than he had been in the Commons, where he had to worry about his religious constituents. [...] He started teaching at 21, telling his headmaster that, as an atheist, he was not really qualified to take religious education." Andrew Roth, 'Obituary: Lord Dormand of Easington: Genial chairman during Labour's hard times', ''The Guardian'', December 20, 2003, Pg. 21.</ref>
Line 68: Line 65:
 
* [[Dick Gross]] (1954&ndash;): Australia politician, President of the Municipal Association of Victoria and former three-time Mayor of the City of Port Phillip, Australia.<ref>"An atheist who values religion, Dick Gross (who is the Mayor of the City of Port Phillip, Vic) wrote ''The Godless Gospel'' for people who don't believe in God but need the social and moral structures that religion provides. Atheists are his biggest critics, but Gross's sense of humour is equal to their righteous indignation." Programme summary, 'The Spirit of things', Radio National, with Rachael Kohn: '[http://www.abc.net.au/rn/relig/spirit/stories/s54907.htm Do We Need God To Be Good?]', September 26, 1999 (accessed June 10, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Dick Gross]] (1954&ndash;): Australia politician, President of the Municipal Association of Victoria and former three-time Mayor of the City of Port Phillip, Australia.<ref>"An atheist who values religion, Dick Gross (who is the Mayor of the City of Port Phillip, Vic) wrote ''The Godless Gospel'' for people who don't believe in God but need the social and moral structures that religion provides. Atheists are his biggest critics, but Gross's sense of humour is equal to their righteous indignation." Programme summary, 'The Spirit of things', Radio National, with Rachael Kohn: '[http://www.abc.net.au/rn/relig/spirit/stories/s54907.htm Do We Need God To Be Good?]', September 26, 1999 (accessed June 10, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Vincent Hallinan]] (1896&ndash;1992): American lawyer who ran for President of the United States in 1952, the third highest polling candidate in the election.<ref>"He also served a two-year sentence for tax evasion in the 1950s, ran for US president for the Progressive Party, made a great deal of money, and as a militant atheist once pinned down a Catholic archbishop during cross-examination, forcing him to confess he could not prove Heaven existed." Christopher Reed, 'Obituary: Vincent Hallinan, A Brawler for Justice', ''The Guardian'' (London), October 6, 1992, Pg. 33.</ref>
 
* [[Vincent Hallinan]] (1896&ndash;1992): American lawyer who ran for President of the United States in 1952, the third highest polling candidate in the election.<ref>"He also served a two-year sentence for tax evasion in the 1950s, ran for US president for the Progressive Party, made a great deal of money, and as a militant atheist once pinned down a Catholic archbishop during cross-examination, forcing him to confess he could not prove Heaven existed." Christopher Reed, 'Obituary: Vincent Hallinan, A Brawler for Justice', ''The Guardian'' (London), October 6, 1992, Pg. 33.</ref>
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* [[Evan Harris]] (1965&ndash;): British [[Liberal Democrats|Liberal Democrat]] politician and [[Member of Parliament#United Kingdom|MP]].<ref>"But another prominent atheist, medic and secularist, the Liberal Democrat MP, Dr Evan Harris, is not so sure that 9/11 was the nodal point. "It's not the main thing to scientists," he insists. "When you talk to them the thing that comes up most often is the influence religion has had on science in America under George Bush." " Paul Vallely, '[http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/religion-vs-science-can-the-divide-between-god-and-rationality-be-reconciled-955321.html Religion vs science: can the divide between God and rationality be reconciled?]', ''The Independent'', 11 October 2008 (accessed 13 October 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Roy Hattersley]] [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (1932&ndash;): British [[British Labour Party|Labour Party]] politician, author and journalist, Deputy Leader of the Labour Party 1983&ndash;1992.<ref>"I was the visiting atheist on the BBC's weekly religious show a couple of Sundays ago." Roy Hattersley, 'Blighted by a moral code', ''The Guardian'', December 11, 2006, Comment and Debate, Pg. 25.</ref>
 
* [[Roy Hattersley]] [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (1932&ndash;): British [[British Labour Party|Labour Party]] politician, author and journalist, Deputy Leader of the Labour Party 1983&ndash;1992.<ref>"I was the visiting atheist on the BBC's weekly religious show a couple of Sundays ago." Roy Hattersley, 'Blighted by a moral code', ''The Guardian'', December 11, 2006, Comment and Debate, Pg. 25.</ref>
 
* [[George Hawi]] (1938&ndash;2005): [[Lebanon|Lebanese]] politician and former secretary general of the [[Lebanese Communist Party]].<ref>"What united them was opposition to a supposedly corrupt and pro-western administration, unfairly dominated by factions of Lebanon's Maronite Christian community. Notwithstanding his own professed atheism, Hawi, Greek Orthodox by birth, was valued as an iconic Christian figure within a coalition often painted as sectarian Muslim." Lawrence Joffe, 'Obituary: George Hawi: Lebanese communist leader who espoused Muslim-Christian dialogue', ''The Guardian'' (London)June 22, 2005, Pg. 29.</ref>
 
* [[George Hawi]] (1938&ndash;2005): [[Lebanon|Lebanese]] politician and former secretary general of the [[Lebanese Communist Party]].<ref>"What united them was opposition to a supposedly corrupt and pro-western administration, unfairly dominated by factions of Lebanon's Maronite Christian community. Notwithstanding his own professed atheism, Hawi, Greek Orthodox by birth, was valued as an iconic Christian figure within a coalition often painted as sectarian Muslim." Lawrence Joffe, 'Obituary: George Hawi: Lebanese communist leader who espoused Muslim-Christian dialogue', ''The Guardian'' (London)June 22, 2005, Pg. 29.</ref>
* [[Bill Hayden]] (1933&ndash;): Governor-General of Australia (1989&ndash;1996).<ref>In 1996 Hayden was recognised as the ''Australian [[Humanist]] of the Year'' with the statement that "The award is made because he has shown that an avowed atheist who describes himself as a secular humanist can occupy the position of Governor-General with mounting approval." ''Australian Humanist'', No. 41 February, 1996</ref>.<ref>"Being an atheist--as I am--is not a necessary pre-condition for being a humanist." in his acceptance speech for ''Australian Humanist of the Year'', reported in ''Australian Humanist'', No 42, May 1996</ref>
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* [[Bill Hayden]] (1933&ndash;): Governor-General of Australia (1989&ndash;1996).<ref>In 1996 Hayden was recognised as the ''Australian [[Humanism|Humanist]] of the Year'' with the statement that "The award is made because he has shown that an avowed atheist who describes himself as a secular humanist can occupy the position of Governor-General with mounting approval." ''Australian Humanist'', No. 41 February, 1996</ref>.<ref>"Being an atheist--as I am--is not a necessary pre-condition for being a humanist." in his acceptance speech for ''Australian Humanist of the Year'', reported in ''Australian Humanist'', No 42, May 1996</ref>
 
* [[Theodor Herzl]] (1860&ndash;1904): Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist and founder of modern political [[Zionism]].<ref>"He [Chaim Maccoby] spoke out ever more vehemently against Herzl, the self-confessed atheist, and his followers, refusing to preach at one federation synagogue because it dared to host a branch of the Zionist Federation." Geoffrey Alderman, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/70160 'Maccoby, Chaim Zundel (1858–1916)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Theodor Herzl]] (1860&ndash;1904): Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist and founder of modern political [[Zionism]].<ref>"He [Chaim Maccoby] spoke out ever more vehemently against Herzl, the self-confessed atheist, and his followers, refusing to preach at one federation synagogue because it dared to host a branch of the Zionist Federation." Geoffrey Alderman, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/70160 'Maccoby, Chaim Zundel (1858–1916)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Douglas Houghton, Baron Houghton of Sowerby|Douglas Houghton]] [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] [[Order of the Companions of Honour|CH]] (1898&ndash;1996): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"Baroness Blatch: My Lords, if noble Lords, like me, believe in the life hereafter, then it is possible to believe that the doughty animal-lover, the late Lord Houghton of Sowerby, will be looking down on our proceedings today. '''Lord McIntosh of Haringey:''' My Lords-- Baroness Blatch: I know that the noble Lord is not a believer in these matters. I speak personally; I did make that point. [...] Lord McIntosh of Haringey: Before the Minister leaves Lord Houghton of Sowerby, it is not my beliefs that matter; Lord Houghton was to his dying day a devoted atheist." [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/vo970320/text/70320-29.htm Lords Hansard, March 20, 1997: Column 1142-1143] </ref>.  
 
* [[Douglas Houghton, Baron Houghton of Sowerby|Douglas Houghton]] [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] [[Order of the Companions of Honour|CH]] (1898&ndash;1996): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"Baroness Blatch: My Lords, if noble Lords, like me, believe in the life hereafter, then it is possible to believe that the doughty animal-lover, the late Lord Houghton of Sowerby, will be looking down on our proceedings today. '''Lord McIntosh of Haringey:''' My Lords-- Baroness Blatch: I know that the noble Lord is not a believer in these matters. I speak personally; I did make that point. [...] Lord McIntosh of Haringey: Before the Minister leaves Lord Houghton of Sowerby, it is not my beliefs that matter; Lord Houghton was to his dying day a devoted atheist." [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/vo970320/text/70320-29.htm Lords Hansard, March 20, 1997: Column 1142-1143] </ref>.  
 
* [[Enver Hoxha]] (1908&ndash;1985): Communist ruler who declared Albania the first [[state atheism|atheist state]], and who has been identified as an "arch-atheist."<ref>Sang M. Lee writes that Albania was "[o]fficially an atheist state under Hoxha..." [http://64.233.179.104/scholar?hl=en&lr=&safe=active&q=cache:eHDelIDZLBwJ:www.cbs.dk/centres/cees/network/pdf2000/Lee.pdf+%22enver+hoxha%22+atheist+-wikipedia Restructuring Albanian Business Education Infrastructure] August 2000 (Accessed June 6, 2007)</ref><ref>Kamm, Henry (1993, June 10). 'Hallelujah' is heard in the arch-atheist's temple. ''The New York Times'' (Late Edition (East Coast)), p. A4. Retrieved August 27, 2007, from National Newspaper Abstracts</ref>
 
* [[Enver Hoxha]] (1908&ndash;1985): Communist ruler who declared Albania the first [[state atheism|atheist state]], and who has been identified as an "arch-atheist."<ref>Sang M. Lee writes that Albania was "[o]fficially an atheist state under Hoxha..." [http://64.233.179.104/scholar?hl=en&lr=&safe=active&q=cache:eHDelIDZLBwJ:www.cbs.dk/centres/cees/network/pdf2000/Lee.pdf+%22enver+hoxha%22+atheist+-wikipedia Restructuring Albanian Business Education Infrastructure] August 2000 (Accessed June 6, 2007)</ref><ref>Kamm, Henry (1993, June 10). 'Hallelujah' is heard in the arch-atheist's temple. ''The New York Times'' (Late Edition (East Coast)), p. A4. Retrieved August 27, 2007, from National Newspaper Abstracts</ref>
 
* [[Robert Hughes, Baron Hughes of Woodside|Robert Hughes]], Baron Hughes of Woodside (1932&ndash;): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"Do we accept the fact that in a wholly elected Chamber there would be no Cross-Benchers and no representatives of the Church of England or any other faith? Fortunately there will still be room for atheists like me, although I would go as well under a wholly elected system." Lord Hughes of Woodside, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200203/ldhansrd/vo030121/text/30121-08.htm Lords Hansard, 21 Jan 2003: Column 632] (accessed April 25, 2008). </ref>
 
* [[Robert Hughes, Baron Hughes of Woodside|Robert Hughes]], Baron Hughes of Woodside (1932&ndash;): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"Do we accept the fact that in a wholly elected Chamber there would be no Cross-Benchers and no representatives of the Church of England or any other faith? Fortunately there will still be room for atheists like me, although I would go as well under a wholly elected system." Lord Hughes of Woodside, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200203/ldhansrd/vo030121/text/30121-08.htm Lords Hansard, 21 Jan 2003: Column 632] (accessed April 25, 2008). </ref>
* [[Ion Iliescu]] (1930&ndash;): Romanian politician, three times President of Romania.<ref>"No wonder this politically-baffled people is now looking to the Church for a new ideological direction. Even President Ion Iliescu, once Nicolae Ceausescu's chief of propaganda and a self-confessed atheist, has conceded that the country needs the Church to bring moral renewal." Fiona Tupper-Carey, 'Faith and Reason: Romania's church faces up to its past', ''The Independent'' (London), November 9, 1991, Pg. 53.</ref>
 
 
* [[Nilde Iotti]] (1920&ndash;1999): Italian politician, the first woman to became president of the Italian Chamber of Deputies for three consecutive legislatures 1979&ndash;1992.<ref>"A diligent pupil, she won a scholarship to Milan's prestigious Catholic university - which left no traces of religiosity. An untormented atheist, she died without a priest at her side." Donald Sassoon, 'Nilde Iotti: Italy's leading post-war woman politician and a founding mother of the republic', ''The Guardian'', December 9, 1999, Leader Pages, Pg. 24.</ref>
 
* [[Nilde Iotti]] (1920&ndash;1999): Italian politician, the first woman to became president of the Italian Chamber of Deputies for three consecutive legislatures 1979&ndash;1992.<ref>"A diligent pupil, she won a scholarship to Milan's prestigious Catholic university - which left no traces of religiosity. An untormented atheist, she died without a priest at her side." Donald Sassoon, 'Nilde Iotti: Italy's leading post-war woman politician and a founding mother of the republic', ''The Guardian'', December 9, 1999, Leader Pages, Pg. 24.</ref>
 
* [[Dale Jackaman (Canadian politician)|Dale Jackaman]] (1956&ndash;): Canadian politician.<ref>" Dale Jackaman doesn't believe in God. Those who do worry him, especially fundamentalists. "I'm an atheist," declares Jackaman, a former Army reservist who has served in the Middle East and now runs a computer security firm. [...] "Atheists tend not to bother anybody unless they're riled up," Jackaman said. "We're riled up now." [...] Jackaman gives the lie to the old saw that there are no atheists in foxholes. He did three tours of duty in the Middle East -- two in the Golan Heights and one in Cyprus -- with the Army signal corps. Far from igniting any spark of spirituality, his experience in the war-torn Middle East confirmed his belief that religious differences fan the flames of war. "It solidified my atheism," Jackaman said. " [http://www.canada.com/richmondnews/news/story.html?id=6454afdb-9ea3-4bfd-bb9f-11f6898c70fc&p=1 No god before me], ''Richmond News'' October 23, 2007 (accessed April 22, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Dale Jackaman (Canadian politician)|Dale Jackaman]] (1956&ndash;): Canadian politician.<ref>" Dale Jackaman doesn't believe in God. Those who do worry him, especially fundamentalists. "I'm an atheist," declares Jackaman, a former Army reservist who has served in the Middle East and now runs a computer security firm. [...] "Atheists tend not to bother anybody unless they're riled up," Jackaman said. "We're riled up now." [...] Jackaman gives the lie to the old saw that there are no atheists in foxholes. He did three tours of duty in the Middle East -- two in the Golan Heights and one in Cyprus -- with the Army signal corps. Far from igniting any spark of spirituality, his experience in the war-torn Middle East confirmed his belief that religious differences fan the flames of war. "It solidified my atheism," Jackaman said. " [http://www.canada.com/richmondnews/news/story.html?id=6454afdb-9ea3-4bfd-bb9f-11f6898c70fc&p=1 No god before me], ''Richmond News'' October 23, 2007 (accessed April 22, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Thomas A. Jackson|Tommy Jackson]] (1879&ndash;1955): English founder of the [[Socialist Party of Great Britain]] and later the [[Communist Party of Great Britain]].<ref>"When Jackson in his teens converted 'in a night' to socialism and atheism, he was 'literally ill for days afterwards', and it was another two years before he felt able to reveal his new beliefs to his parents (memoirs, People's History Museum, Manchester)." Kevin Morgan, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/65941 'Jackson, Thomas Alfred (1879–1955)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 6, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Thomas A. Jackson|Tommy Jackson]] (1879&ndash;1955): English founder of the [[Socialist Party of Great Britain]] and later the [[Communist Party of Great Britain]].<ref>"When Jackson in his teens converted 'in a night' to socialism and atheism, he was 'literally ill for days afterwards', and it was another two years before he felt able to reveal his new beliefs to his parents (memoirs, People's History Museum, Manchester)." Kevin Morgan, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/65941 'Jackson, Thomas Alfred (1879–1955)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 6, 2008).</ref>
* [[Zoran Janković]] (1953&ndash;): [[Slovenia]]n businessman and current mayor of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia.<ref>"Forty years later, nobody considers it a problem. If we want to engage in intercultural dialogue, we cannot let our Slovene, Ljubljana Muslims celebrate their holidays at sport halls. I am an atheist, but I think that every religious community should have a place of worship built by themselves." Zoran Janković, quoted in 'Mayor tells Bosnian daily building of mosque in Ljubljana "no longer a problem"', BBC Monitoring Europe - Political, May 14, 2008.</ref>
+
* [[Janet Jagan]] (1920&ndash;2009): American-born socialist politician, Prime Minister and then President of [[Guyana]].<ref>" She was respectfully called "bhowji" (elder brother's wife) by PPP supporters. Janet remained an atheist and did not convert to Hinduism. "I am an activist. People either hate me to infinity or love me to death," she once told an interviewer. " John Cherian, '[http://www.frontline.in/stories/20090424260811900.htm Guiding light]' (Jagan's obituary), ''Frontline'' (India), Volume 26, Issue 08, April 11-24 2009 (accessed 7 April 2009).</ref>
* [[Jiang Zemin]] (1926&ndash;1955): Chinese communist politician, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China 1989&ndash;2002 and President of China 1993&ndash;2003.<ref>"No one expects China's position on Tibet to become any more negotiable than it has been. But in one revealing moment, Mr Jiang gave a glimpse of the difficulties Peking has in understanding why other countries abhor its policies in Tibet. "I myself am an atheist," he said. "During my visit to the US last year and during my previous visit to European countries, I found that although the education, science and technology have developed to a very high level and the people are now enjoying modern civilisation, still quite a number of them have a belief in Lamaism." Teresa Poole, 'Jiang keeps channels open to Dalai Lama', ''The Independent'' (London), June 28, 1998, Pg. 16.</ref>
+
* [[Zoran Janković (economist)|Zoran Janković]] (1953&ndash;): [[Slovenia]]n businessman and current mayor of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia.<ref>"Forty years later, nobody considers it a problem. If we want to engage in intercultural dialogue, we cannot let our Slovene, Ljubljana Muslims celebrate their holidays at sport halls. I am an atheist, but I think that every religious community should have a place of worship built by themselves." Zoran Janković, quoted in 'Mayor tells Bosnian daily building of mosque in Ljubljana "no longer a problem"', BBC Monitoring Europe - Political, May 14, 2008.</ref>
 +
* [[Jiang Zemin]] (1926&ndash;): Chinese communist politician, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China 1989&ndash;2002 and President of China 1993&ndash;2003.<ref>"No one expects China's position on Tibet to become any more negotiable than it has been. But in one revealing moment, Mr Jiang gave a glimpse of the difficulties Peking has in understanding why other countries abhor its policies in Tibet. "I myself am an atheist," he said. "During my visit to the US last year and during my previous visit to European countries, I found that although the education, science and technology have developed to a very high level and the people are now enjoying modern civilisation, still quite a number of them have a belief in Lamaism." Teresa Poole, 'Jiang keeps channels open to Dalai Lama', ''The Independent'' (London), June 28, 1998, Pg. 16.</ref>
 
* [[Joel Joffe, Baron Joffe]] [[Order of the British Empire|CBE]] (1932&ndash;): South Africa-born British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] [[peerage|peer]] in the [[House of Lords]].<ref>"I come to this debate with some hesitation because, although I am an atheist, I have always respected the Church of England for the courageous conduct of some of its clergy in South Africa during the apartheid regime, for its social and community work in the UK and for its stand on many human rights issues, and, of course, my admiration and respect for the most reverend Primate the Archbishop of York is unbounded." Lord Joffe, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo980604/text/80604-06.htm Lords Hansard, 19 Apr 2007: Column 357] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Joel Joffe, Baron Joffe]] [[Order of the British Empire|CBE]] (1932&ndash;): South Africa-born British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] [[peerage|peer]] in the [[House of Lords]].<ref>"I come to this debate with some hesitation because, although I am an atheist, I have always respected the Church of England for the courageous conduct of some of its clergy in South Africa during the apartheid regime, for its social and community work in the UK and for its stand on many human rights issues, and, of course, my admiration and respect for the most reverend Primate the Archbishop of York is unbounded." Lord Joffe, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo980604/text/80604-06.htm Lords Hansard, 19 Apr 2007: Column 357] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Reginald Johnston|Sir Reginald Johnston]] (1874&ndash;1938): Scottish diplomat and tutor of [[Puyi]], the last [[emperor of China]], later appointed as commissioner of British-held [[Weihaiwei]].<ref>"Fiercely anti-Christian, he also found time to publish, under the pseudonym Lin Shao Yang, an attack on protestant missions in China, ''A Chinese Appeal to Christendom Concerning Christian Missions'' (1911). [...] Johnston's atheism was humourless, and privately coarse. His anger with Christianity was a reaction against the high-church Anglicanism of his early upbringing; his was a quarrel with God, as much as with the mission enterprise—although he claimed the latter was as morally indefensible as the opium trade." Robert Bickers, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/34212 'Johnston, Sir Reginald Fleming (1874–1938)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 6, 2008).</ref>  
 
* [[Reginald Johnston|Sir Reginald Johnston]] (1874&ndash;1938): Scottish diplomat and tutor of [[Puyi]], the last [[emperor of China]], later appointed as commissioner of British-held [[Weihaiwei]].<ref>"Fiercely anti-Christian, he also found time to publish, under the pseudonym Lin Shao Yang, an attack on protestant missions in China, ''A Chinese Appeal to Christendom Concerning Christian Missions'' (1911). [...] Johnston's atheism was humourless, and privately coarse. His anger with Christianity was a reaction against the high-church Anglicanism of his early upbringing; his was a quarrel with God, as much as with the mission enterprise—although he claimed the latter was as morally indefensible as the opium trade." Robert Bickers, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/34212 'Johnston, Sir Reginald Fleming (1874–1938)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 6, 2008).</ref>  
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* [[Neil Kinnock]] [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (1942&ndash;): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician, [[Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)|Leader of the Opposition]] and [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour Party]] leader 1983&ndash;1992.<ref>"Mr Blair's private faith is well-documented and almost certainly stronger than any prime minister in recent memory. Mr Hague is more typical in being an occasional church-goer. Neil Kinnock was unique in declaring himself an atheist." Michael White, Political editor, 'Blair to address Christian groups conference', ''The Guardian'', June 26, 2000, Pg. 4.</ref>
 
* [[Neil Kinnock]] [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (1942&ndash;): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician, [[Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)|Leader of the Opposition]] and [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour Party]] leader 1983&ndash;1992.<ref>"Mr Blair's private faith is well-documented and almost certainly stronger than any prime minister in recent memory. Mr Hague is more typical in being an occasional church-goer. Neil Kinnock was unique in declaring himself an atheist." Michael White, Political editor, 'Blair to address Christian groups conference', ''The Guardian'', June 26, 2000, Pg. 4.</ref>
 
* [[Aleksander Kwaśniewski]] (1954&ndash;): Former [[President of Poland]] (1995-2005).<ref>"I am an atheist and everybody knows it..." ''[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/06/04/wkwas04.xml Atheist premier attacks lack of Christianity in EU constitution]'', by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, ''The Telegraph'', June 4, 2003.</ref>
 
* [[Aleksander Kwaśniewski]] (1954&ndash;): Former [[President of Poland]] (1995-2005).<ref>"I am an atheist and everybody knows it..." ''[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/06/04/wkwas04.xml Atheist premier attacks lack of Christianity in EU constitution]'', by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, ''The Telegraph'', June 4, 2003.</ref>
* [[Ismael Leandry Vega]] (1979&ndash;): Puertorrican lawyer and author of La Maldad y la Imbecilidad de tu Dios y de tu Religión (ISBN: 978-0-6152-4471-6).<ref>Ismael Leandry Vega. (2008). La Maldad y la Imbecilidad de tu Dios y de tu Religión. Morrisville, North Carolina.: Lulu Press. ISBN: 978-0-6152-4471-6.</ref>
 
 
*[[Vladimir Ilyich Lenin]] (1870&mdash;1924): Marxist revolutionary, Bolshevik Leader and President of the All Russian Congress of Peoples' Soviets. Lenin considered atheist propaganda to be essential to promoting communism.<ref>"[''Pod Znamenem Marksizma''] must be a militant atheist organ... a journal which sets out to propagandise militant materialism must carry on untiring atheist propaganda and an untiring atheist fight." [http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1922/mar/12.htm On the Significance of Militant Materialism], V. I. Lenin, ''Pod Znamenem Marksizma'' No. 3, March 12, 1922, as published in ''Lenin’s Collected Works'', Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 33, 1972, pp. 227-236 (Translated by David Skvirsky and George Hanna), hosted at [http://www.marxists.org/ Marxists Internet Archive] (Accessed November 14, 2007)</ref>
 
*[[Vladimir Ilyich Lenin]] (1870&mdash;1924): Marxist revolutionary, Bolshevik Leader and President of the All Russian Congress of Peoples' Soviets. Lenin considered atheist propaganda to be essential to promoting communism.<ref>"[''Pod Znamenem Marksizma''] must be a militant atheist organ... a journal which sets out to propagandise militant materialism must carry on untiring atheist propaganda and an untiring atheist fight." [http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1922/mar/12.htm On the Significance of Militant Materialism], V. I. Lenin, ''Pod Znamenem Marksizma'' No. 3, March 12, 1922, as published in ''Lenin’s Collected Works'', Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 33, 1972, pp. 227-236 (Translated by David Skvirsky and George Hanna), hosted at [http://www.marxists.org/ Marxists Internet Archive] (Accessed November 14, 2007)</ref>
 
* [[Ken Livingstone]] (1945&ndash;): [[Mayor of London]] 2000-08.<ref>"I assume you're an atheist? I am too. Isn't life easier?" {{cite web |url=http://johannhari.com/archive/article.php?id=1285|title=Ken Livingstone: The Interview |work=[[Attitude (magazine)|attitude]]|accessdate=2008-04-25}}</ref>
 
* [[Ken Livingstone]] (1945&ndash;): [[Mayor of London]] 2000-08.<ref>"I assume you're an atheist? I am too. Isn't life easier?" {{cite web |url=http://johannhari.com/archive/article.php?id=1285|title=Ken Livingstone: The Interview |work=[[Attitude (magazine)|attitude]]|accessdate=2008-04-25}}</ref>
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* [[Heather Mac Donald]] (c.1956&ndash;): American writer and lawyer, member of the [[Manhattan Institute]] and author of ''The Burden of Bad Ideas: How Modern Intellectuals Misshape Our Society''.<ref>[http://www.gnxp.com/blog/2007/01/10-questions-for-heather-mac-donald.php].</ref>
 
* [[Heather Mac Donald]] (c.1956&ndash;): American writer and lawyer, member of the [[Manhattan Institute]] and author of ''The Burden of Bad Ideas: How Modern Intellectuals Misshape Our Society''.<ref>[http://www.gnxp.com/blog/2007/01/10-questions-for-heather-mac-donald.php].</ref>
 
* [[Gus Macdonald, Baron Macdonald of Tradeston]] [[Order of the British Empire|CBE]], [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (1940&ndash;56): distinguished British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"I speak as someone who was brought up as an atheist, although my free-thinking parents insisted that I spent a great deal of my childhood at Bible class, the Boys' Brigade and Church of Scotland lectures, none of which I regret, but I came back to an atheistic view of the world and have maintained that." Gus Macdonald, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200506/ldhansrd/vo060327/text/60327-31.htm Lords Hansard, March 27, 2006: Column GC257] (accessed April 24, 2008). </ref>
 
* [[Gus Macdonald, Baron Macdonald of Tradeston]] [[Order of the British Empire|CBE]], [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (1940&ndash;56): distinguished British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician.<ref>"I speak as someone who was brought up as an atheist, although my free-thinking parents insisted that I spent a great deal of my childhood at Bible class, the Boys' Brigade and Church of Scotland lectures, none of which I regret, but I came back to an atheistic view of the world and have maintained that." Gus Macdonald, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200506/ldhansrd/vo060327/text/60327-31.htm Lords Hansard, March 27, 2006: Column GC257] (accessed April 24, 2008). </ref>
 +
* [[Mao Zedong]] (1893&ndash;1976): was a Chinese military and political leader, who led the Communist Party of China to victory in the Chinese Civil War, and was the leader of the People’s Republic of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Under his leadership, China officially became an [[State atheism|atheist state]].<ref>"With revolution came a new, atheist regime - one that frowned on all religious belief." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/3343535.stm China's Catholics: Far from Rome], by Holly Williams, BBC News, December 24, 2003, (Accessed April 14, 2008)</ref><ref>"...Mao was an atheist..." [http://www.jstor.org/stable/2949869 Death Ritual as Political Trickster in the People's Republic of China], by A. P. Cheater, ''Source: The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs'', No. 26 (Jul., 1991), pp. 67-97 (p. 92), published by Contemporary China Center, Australian National University</ref><ref>"Mao is not only a historical figure, of course, but is part of the (tattered) web of legitimacy on which the People's Republic rests. He is part of the founding mythology of the Chinese government, the Romulus and Remus of "People's China," and that's why his portrait hangs in Tiananmen Square. Even among ordinary Chinese, Mao retains a hold on the popular imagination, and some peasants in different parts of China have started traditional religious shrines honoring him. That's the ultimate honor for an atheist - he has become a god." [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/23/books/review/23cover.html 'Mao': The Real Mao], Nicholas D. Kristof, ''The New York Times'', October 23, 2005 (Accessed April 25, 2008)</ref>
 
* [[Karl Marx]] (1818&ndash;83): a 19th-century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, political theorist, often called the father of communism.<ref>''Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right'', 1843</ref>
 
* [[Karl Marx]] (1818&ndash;83): a 19th-century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, political theorist, often called the father of communism.<ref>''Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right'', 1843</ref>
 
* [[John Maxton, Baron Maxton]] (1936&ndash;): Scottish politician, MP and now member of the House of Lords.<ref>"As I have said in the House, I am an atheist and anti-clerical and I do not believe that religion should play the large part that it does in the House or elsewhere." John Maxton, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199899/cmhansrd/vo990623/debtext/90623-40.htm House of Commons Hansard, 23 Jun 1999: Column 1253] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref><ref>"I am not religious: my children have never been christened. I openly and proudly announce that I am an atheist." John Maxton, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199697/cmhansrd/vo961029/debtext/61029-22.htm House of Commons Hansard, 29 Oct 1996: Column 518] (accessed April 28, 2008). </ref>
 
* [[John Maxton, Baron Maxton]] (1936&ndash;): Scottish politician, MP and now member of the House of Lords.<ref>"As I have said in the House, I am an atheist and anti-clerical and I do not believe that religion should play the large part that it does in the House or elsewhere." John Maxton, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199899/cmhansrd/vo990623/debtext/90623-40.htm House of Commons Hansard, 23 Jun 1999: Column 1253] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref><ref>"I am not religious: my children have never been christened. I openly and proudly announce that I am an atheist." John Maxton, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199697/cmhansrd/vo961029/debtext/61029-22.htm House of Commons Hansard, 29 Oct 1996: Column 518] (accessed April 28, 2008). </ref>
 
* [[David Miliband]] (1965&ndash;): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician, [[Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs|Foreign Secretary]] since 2007.<ref>"Miliband, a devout atheist, had forged his reputation as a policy wonk at the Left-leaning Institute for Public Policy Research and was headhunted to became Tony Blair's head of policy at Downing Street." Andrew Pierce, '[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/labour/2475236/Profile-of-Foreign-Secretary-David-Miliband.html Profile of Foreign Secretary David Miliband]', ''Daily Telegraph'', July 30, 2008 (accessed August 1, 2008).</ref>  
 
* [[David Miliband]] (1965&ndash;): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician, [[Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs|Foreign Secretary]] since 2007.<ref>"Miliband, a devout atheist, had forged his reputation as a policy wonk at the Left-leaning Institute for Public Policy Research and was headhunted to became Tony Blair's head of policy at Downing Street." Andrew Pierce, '[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/labour/2475236/Profile-of-Foreign-Secretary-David-Miliband.html Profile of Foreign Secretary David Miliband]', ''Daily Telegraph'', July 30, 2008 (accessed August 1, 2008).</ref>  
 
* [[Montague Miller]] (1839&ndash;1920): Australian unionist, secularist and revolutionary socialist.<ref>"He became a doubter of the Christian religion at a very early age. It was the questions asked by the man Friday of Robinson Crusoe that set his analytical mind asking the why and wherefore. [...] He became an atheist at 15, much to the grief of his beloved mother and the disgust of his harsh and bigoted Wesleyan father. Often in later life, when his mother found a home under his roof, he carried the "War Cry" in one pocket and "The Free Thinker" in the other." Annie Westbrook, 'Monty Miller - An Appreciation by Angela (Annie) Westbrook', ''International Socialist'', December 1920. Archived online at http://www.takver.com/history/monty_miller.htm</ref>
 
* [[Montague Miller]] (1839&ndash;1920): Australian unionist, secularist and revolutionary socialist.<ref>"He became a doubter of the Christian religion at a very early age. It was the questions asked by the man Friday of Robinson Crusoe that set his analytical mind asking the why and wherefore. [...] He became an atheist at 15, much to the grief of his beloved mother and the disgust of his harsh and bigoted Wesleyan father. Often in later life, when his mother found a home under his roof, he carried the "War Cry" in one pocket and "The Free Thinker" in the other." Annie Westbrook, 'Monty Miller - An Appreciation by Angela (Annie) Westbrook', ''International Socialist'', December 1920. Archived online at http://www.takver.com/history/monty_miller.htm</ref>
* [[Violet Milner, Viscountess Milner|Violet Milner]] (1872&ndash;1958): English [[Edwardian]] society Lady and editor of the political monthly, ''[[National Review (London)| National Review]].<ref>"They spent much of their early married life with the Salisburys at Hatfield House; this she found enthralling but oppressive—the incessant talk about the Anglican church dividing her, an atheist, from the religious Cecils." Hugh Cecil, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/35039 'Milner , Violet Georgina, Viscountess Milner (1872–1958)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, October 2006 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>
+
* [[Violet Milner, Viscountess Milner|Violet Milner]] (1872&ndash;1958): English [[Edwardian]] society Lady and editor of the political monthly, ''[[National Review (London)|National Review]].<ref>"They spent much of their early married life with the Salisburys at Hatfield House; this she found enthralling but oppressive—the incessant talk about the Anglican church dividing her, an atheist, from the religious Cecils." Hugh Cecil, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/35039 'Milner , Violet Georgina, Viscountess Milner (1872–1958)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, October 2006 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>
* [[Slobodan Milošević]] (1941&ndash;2006): [[Serbia]]n politician, former [[President of Serbia]] and of [[President of Yugoslavia|Yugoslavia]].<ref>{{cite news| quote=There were no clergy at the ceremony because Milosevic was an avowed atheist.|title=Milosevic buried in quiet ceremony in his hometown|publisher=[[CBC News]]|url=http://www.cbc.ca/story/world/national/2006/03/18/milosevic-funeral060318.html|date=2006-03-18|accessdate=2008-04-02|}}</ref>
+
* [[Slobodan Milošević]] (1941&ndash;2006): [[Serbia]]n politician, former [[President of Serbia]] and of [[President of Yugoslavia|Yugoslavia]].<ref>{{cite news| quote=There were no clergy at the ceremony because Milosevic was an avowed atheist.|title=Milosevic buried in quiet ceremony in his hometown|publisher=[[CBC News]]|url=http://www.cbc.ca/story/world/national/2006/03/18/milosevic-funeral060318.html|date=2006-03-18|accessdate=2008-04-02}}</ref>
 
* [[John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn]] [[Order of Merit|OM]], [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (1838&ndash;1923): British [[Liberal Party (UK)|Liberal]] [[statesman]], [[writer]] and newspaper editor.<ref>"[...] Morley was an odd choice for biographer, since he was a "freethinking'' atheist, and he agreed to the Gladstone family's stipulation that he should refrain from treating Gladstone's religion in any depth." Christopher Howse, 'Why Gladstone had God up his sleeve', ''Daily Telegraph'', November 24, 2007, Pg. 29.</ref>
 
* [[John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn]] [[Order of Merit|OM]], [[Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (1838&ndash;1923): British [[Liberal Party (UK)|Liberal]] [[statesman]], [[writer]] and newspaper editor.<ref>"[...] Morley was an odd choice for biographer, since he was a "freethinking'' atheist, and he agreed to the Gladstone family's stipulation that he should refrain from treating Gladstone's religion in any depth." Christopher Howse, 'Why Gladstone had God up his sleeve', ''Daily Telegraph'', November 24, 2007, Pg. 29.</ref>
 
* [[Mo Mowlam]] (1949&ndash;2005): Former [[Secretary of State for Northern Ireland]].<ref>"She had always proclaimed herself an atheist..." [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article556574.ece Times obituary: Dr Marjorie Mowlam], August 19, 2005 (Accessed June 6, 2007)</ref>
 
* [[Mo Mowlam]] (1949&ndash;2005): Former [[Secretary of State for Northern Ireland]].<ref>"She had always proclaimed herself an atheist..." [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article556574.ece Times obituary: Dr Marjorie Mowlam], August 19, 2005 (Accessed June 6, 2007)</ref>
 
* [[Elaine Murphy, Baroness Murphy|Elaine Murphy]], Baroness Murphy (1949&ndash;2005): British politician and a member of the House of Lords, and a doctor and academic, formerly Professor of Psychiatry of Old Age at Guy's Hospital.<ref>In a heated debate in the House of Lords in which the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Carey, claimed "in my opinion, atheists are not renowned throughout the world for their commitment to the very poor, the starving and the needy", Baroness Murphy replied: "I speak as a rationalist, agnostic — I shall not say atheist in the light of the comments of the noble and right reverend Lord, Lord Carey. It is not a particularly comfortable matter, but one reason to contribute to this debate is to stand up and be counted. I was going to remain rather calm throughout this, but I was rather offended by the comments of the noble and right reverend Lord, Lord Carey, about the role that people without faith have played in doing good in the world. He is entirely and wholly wrong. We feel just as passionately as those who have faith about ensuring that society is just."  
 
* [[Elaine Murphy, Baroness Murphy|Elaine Murphy]], Baroness Murphy (1949&ndash;2005): British politician and a member of the House of Lords, and a doctor and academic, formerly Professor of Psychiatry of Old Age at Guy's Hospital.<ref>In a heated debate in the House of Lords in which the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Carey, claimed "in my opinion, atheists are not renowned throughout the world for their commitment to the very poor, the starving and the needy", Baroness Murphy replied: "I speak as a rationalist, agnostic — I shall not say atheist in the light of the comments of the noble and right reverend Lord, Lord Carey. It is not a particularly comfortable matter, but one reason to contribute to this debate is to stand up and be counted. I was going to remain rather calm throughout this, but I was rather offended by the comments of the noble and right reverend Lord, Lord Carey, about the role that people without faith have played in doing good in the world. He is entirely and wholly wrong. We feel just as passionately as those who have faith about ensuring that society is just."  
 
[http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200607/ldhansrd/text/70419-0005.htm Lords Hansard, 19 Apr 2007: Column 350–351] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 
[http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200607/ldhansrd/text/70419-0005.htm Lords Hansard, 19 Apr 2007: Column 350–351] (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 +
* [[Benito Mussolini]] (1883&ndash;1945): Fascist dictator of Italy.<ref>Mussolini wrote a pamphlet entitled God does not exist. Historian Denis Mack Smith wrote that Mussolini thought: "Science had proved that God did not exist and the Jesus of history was an ignorant Jew whose family thought him mad... Religion, he said, was a disease of the psyche, an epidemic to be cured by psychiatrists, and Christianity in particular was vitiated by preaching the senseless virtues of resignation and cowardice." Smith DM (1982). Mussolini: a biography. New York: Knopf.</ref>
 
* [[Jawaharlal Nehru]] (1889&ndash;1964): First prime minister of India (1947&ndash;1964). <ref>In Jawaharlal Nehru's autobiography, ''An Autobiography'' (1936), and in the Last Will & Testament of Jawaharlal Nehru, in ''Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru'', 2nd series, vol. 26, p. 612, Nehru says that he does not believe in a god in any form.</ref>
 
* [[Jawaharlal Nehru]] (1889&ndash;1964): First prime minister of India (1947&ndash;1964). <ref>In Jawaharlal Nehru's autobiography, ''An Autobiography'' (1936), and in the Last Will & Testament of Jawaharlal Nehru, in ''Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru'', 2nd series, vol. 26, p. 612, Nehru says that he does not believe in a god in any form.</ref>
* [[Nursultan Nazarbayev]] (1940&ndash;): [[Kazakhstan|Kazakh]] polititian, President of Kazakhstan since 1991.<ref>"It must be noted that, despite the death of the Aral Sea, the folly of Astana, the spectre of corruption and the terrible burden of history, Nazarbayev has presided over the dismantling of his own independent nuclear deterrent, has declared himself an enlightened atheist proud of his Muslim heritage and is tough on Islamist baddies." Paul Levy, ''The Observer'' (England), May 20, 2007, Observer Review Books Pages, Pg. 26.</ref>
+
* [[Nursultan Nazarbayev]] (1940&ndash;): [[Kazakhstan|Kazakh]] politician, President of Kazakhstan since 1991.<ref>"It must be noted that, despite the death of the Aral Sea, the folly of Astana, the spectre of corruption and the terrible burden of history, Nazarbayev has presided over the dismantling of his own independent nuclear deterrent, has declared himself an enlightened atheist proud of his Muslim heritage and is tough on Islamist baddies." Paul Levy, ''The Observer'' (England), May 20, 2007, Observer Review Books Pages, Pg. 26.</ref>
* [[Barack Obama, Sr.]] (1936&ndash;1982): A senior economist for the Kenyan government, ex-Muslim, and father of United States presidential candidate [[Barack Obama]].<ref>"My father was almost entirely absent from my childhood, having been divorced from my mother when I was 2 years old; in any event, although my father had been raised a Muslim, by the time he met my mother he was a confirmed atheist, thinking religion to be so much superstition." Barack Obama Jr, '[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1546579-4,00.html My Spiritual Journey]', ''Time'', October 16, 2006 (accessed May 7, 2008).</ref>
+
* [[Barack Obama, Sr.]] (1936&ndash;1982): A senior economist for the Kenyan government, ex-Muslim, and father of United States President [[Barack Obama]].<ref>"My father was almost entirely absent from my childhood, having been divorced from my mother when I was 2 years old; in any event, although my father had been raised a Muslim, by the time he met my mother he was a confirmed atheist, thinking religion to be so much superstition." Barack Obama Jr, '[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1546579-4,00.html My Spiritual Journey]', ''Time'', October 16, 2006 (accessed May 7, 2008).</ref>
* [[Culbert Olson]] (1876&ndash;1962): American politician and [[Governor of California]] (1939&ndash;1943).<ref>The Hon. Atheist Governor: Culbert L. Olson[http://www.atheists.org/Atheism/roots/olson]</ref>
+
* [[Culbert Olson]] (1876&ndash;1962): American politician and [[Governor of California]] (1939&ndash;1943).<ref>[http://www.atheists.org/Atheism/roots/olson The Hon. Atheist Governor: Culbert L. Olson]</ref>
 
* [[Nick Palmer]] (1950&ndash;): British politician and [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] [[Member of Parliament]], a [[Parliamentary Private Secretary]] and a member of the [[Justice Committee]].<ref>"Palmer blamed concerns about disability on a tendency for people "to see physical perfection as important". The MP said that although his co-sponsors include Catholic MPs Tom Clarke and Ann Widdecombe, he is in an atheist and had not been influenced by faith groups." Jenny Percival, '[http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2008/may/19/health.stemcells Amendment could cut number of late abortions]', guardian.co.uk, May 19, 2008 (accessed May 22, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Nick Palmer]] (1950&ndash;): British politician and [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] [[Member of Parliament]], a [[Parliamentary Private Secretary]] and a member of the [[Justice Committee]].<ref>"Palmer blamed concerns about disability on a tendency for people "to see physical perfection as important". The MP said that although his co-sponsors include Catholic MPs Tom Clarke and Ann Widdecombe, he is in an atheist and had not been influenced by faith groups." Jenny Percival, '[http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2008/may/19/health.stemcells Amendment could cut number of late abortions]', guardian.co.uk, May 19, 2008 (accessed May 22, 2008).</ref>
* [[Periyar E. V. Ramasamy ]], known as Periyar (1879&ndash;1973): Indian social reformer and politician, the 'Socrates of South East Asia', who founded the [[Self-Respect Movement]] and [[Dravidar Kazhagam]]. <ref>"On religion, Periyar used both lip and pen rationally and forcefully. He was convinced that people used religion only as a mask to deceive the innocent people. Periyar proclaimed himself as a vowed atheist. Puranas, shastras and smritis were the target of his vociferous condemnation. He firmly asserted that these were responsible in making the public feel hardy and superstitious. At one stage, he asserted that the meaningless religious treatises must be burnt. He believed that belief in God dampens the natural human qualities such as initiatives, perseverance and enthusiasm. Fear of God is the beginning of one’s own foolishness. Periyar attacked mainly Hinduism and its gods, because they are the greatest enemy of human equality and liberty. He felt that if a person should live with self-respect he must do away with religion." Louis Antony, ''[http://snphilosophers2005.tripod.com/louis.pdf Political Philosophy of Periyar]'' (pdf), Pg. 27.</ref>
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* [[Periyar E. V. Ramasamy]], known as Periyar (1879&ndash;1973): Indian social reformer and politician, the 'Socrates of South East Asia', who founded the [[Self-Respect Movement]] and [[Dravidar Kazhagam]]. <ref>"On religion, Periyar used both lip and pen rationally and forcefully. He was convinced that people used religion only as a mask to deceive the innocent people. Periyar proclaimed himself as a vowed atheist. Puranas, shastras and smritis were the target of his vociferous condemnation. He firmly asserted that these were responsible in making the public feel hardy and superstitious. At one stage, he asserted that the meaningless religious treatises must be burnt. He believed that belief in God dampens the natural human qualities such as initiatives, perseverance and enthusiasm. Fear of God is the beginning of one’s own foolishness. Periyar attacked mainly Hinduism and its gods, because they are the greatest enemy of human equality and liberty. He felt that if a person should live with self-respect he must do away with religion." Louis Antony, ''[http://snphilosophers2005.tripod.com/louis.pdf Political Philosophy of Periyar]'' (pdf), Pg. 27.</ref>
 
* [[Marion Phillips]] (1881&ndash;1932): Australia-born [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour Party]] politician and British [[Member of Parliament]].<ref>"She died an atheist, from stomach cancer, on January 23, 1932 [...]." Brian Harrison, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/37852 'Phillips, Marion (1881–1932)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>  
 
* [[Marion Phillips]] (1881&ndash;1932): Australia-born [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour Party]] politician and British [[Member of Parliament]].<ref>"She died an atheist, from stomach cancer, on January 23, 1932 [...]." Brian Harrison, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/37852 'Phillips, Marion (1881–1932)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>  
 
* [[Phil Piratin]] (1907&ndash;1995): British member of the [[Communist Party of Great Britain]] (CPGB) and one of their few Members of Parliament.<ref>"Mr. Piratin declined to take the oath, saying that he was an atheist, and elected to affirm." 'Former Communist M.P.'S Application Suspended Discharge From Bankruptcy', ''The Times'', Saturday, Jul 12, 1952; pg. 3; Issue 52362; col C.</ref>
 
* [[Phil Piratin]] (1907&ndash;1995): British member of the [[Communist Party of Great Britain]] (CPGB) and one of their few Members of Parliament.<ref>"Mr. Piratin declined to take the oath, saying that he was an atheist, and elected to affirm." 'Former Communist M.P.'S Application Suspended Discharge From Bankruptcy', ''The Times'', Saturday, Jul 12, 1952; pg. 3; Issue 52362; col C.</ref>
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* [[Michael Portillo]] former British Member of Parliament for the Conservative party, former Minister of Defence. Now a TV writer and presenter whose work includes UK Channel 4's documentary ''Christianity: A History - Rome'' <ref>Christianity: A History - Rome, UK Channel 4, Jan 2009. In this he remarks that he is a non-believer</ref>
 +
* [[Pol Pot]], birthname Saloth Sar (1925?&ndash;1998): genocidal dictator of Cambodia.<ref>"Religions (mainly Buddhism) were abolished, along with feasts, ceremonies such as traditional marriages, the usual calendar and all cultural activities." Henri Locard describing the Pol Pot regime in "State Violence in Democratic Kampuchea (1975 - 1979) and Retribution (1979 - 2004)". Also see "Pol Pot's Little Red Book", by Pol Pot, Silkworm Press, February 2005.</ref>
 
* [[Santiago Casares Quiroga]] (1884&ndash;1950): Spanish politician, Prime Minister of Spain from May 13 to July 19, 1936.<ref>"Her father, Santiago Casares Quiroga, a leftwing atheist, defied another Galician native, born just across the estuary at El Ferrol del Caudillo, Francisco Franco, the caudillo in person." James Kirkup, 'Obituary: Maria Casares, Free Spirit of the French Stage', ''The Guardian'' (London), November 26, 1996, Features, Pg. 16.</ref>
 
* [[Santiago Casares Quiroga]] (1884&ndash;1950): Spanish politician, Prime Minister of Spain from May 13 to July 19, 1936.<ref>"Her father, Santiago Casares Quiroga, a leftwing atheist, defied another Galician native, born just across the estuary at El Ferrol del Caudillo, Francisco Franco, the caudillo in person." James Kirkup, 'Obituary: Maria Casares, Free Spirit of the French Stage', ''The Guardian'' (London), November 26, 1996, Features, Pg. 16.</ref>
 
*[[Ivica Racan]] (1944&ndash;2007): former [[Croatia]]n [[leftist]] politician who led the Social Democratic Party of Croatia between 1989 up to 2007. He was also the last leader and democratic transformer of the League of Communists of Croatia. <ref>see religion [[Ivica Racan]] </ref>
 
*[[Ivica Racan]] (1944&ndash;2007): former [[Croatia]]n [[leftist]] politician who led the Social Democratic Party of Croatia between 1989 up to 2007. He was also the last leader and democratic transformer of the League of Communists of Croatia. <ref>see religion [[Ivica Racan]] </ref>
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* [[Zbigniew Religa]] (1938&ndash;2009): prominent [[Polish people|Polish]] [[cardiac surgeon]], pioneer in human heart [[transplantation]] and a [[Minister of Health]] of the [[Republic of Poland]].<ref>"I am confirmed in my conviction that there is no god." [http://wiadomosci.wp.pl/kat,1342,title,Religa-utwierdzam-sie-w-przekonaniu-ze-Boga-nie-ma,wid,10523341,wiadomosc_prasa.html?ticaid=17a23|interview at wp.pl]</ref>
 
*[[Dove-Myer Robinson|Sir Dove-Myer Robinson]] (1901&ndash;1989): New Zealand politician, Mayor of Auckland from 1959&ndash;1965 and 1968&ndash;1980.<ref>"Preferring his second name, he began calling himself Dove-Myer. He also rejected Judaism, becoming a lifelong atheist." Edgar, John: 'Robinson, Dove-Myer 1901 - 1989', ''[http://www.dnzb.govt.nz/ Dictionary of New Zealand Biography]'', updated June 22, 2007 (accessed July 16, 2008).</ref>
 
*[[Dove-Myer Robinson|Sir Dove-Myer Robinson]] (1901&ndash;1989): New Zealand politician, Mayor of Auckland from 1959&ndash;1965 and 1968&ndash;1980.<ref>"Preferring his second name, he began calling himself Dove-Myer. He also rejected Judaism, becoming a lifelong atheist." Edgar, John: 'Robinson, Dove-Myer 1901 - 1989', ''[http://www.dnzb.govt.nz/ Dictionary of New Zealand Biography]'', updated June 22, 2007 (accessed July 16, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Gilbert Romme]] (1750&ndash;1795): French politician and mathematician who developed the French Republican Calendar.<ref>"Although an atheist, Romme did not support deChristianization, nor did he regret the fall of Maximilien Robespierre." [http://books.google.com/books?id=LfUBkACi3-wC&printsec=frontcover#PPA281,M1 Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution], by Paul R. Hanson, Scarecrow Press, 2004, p. 281 (Accessed April 15, 2008)</ref>
 
* [[Gilbert Romme]] (1750&ndash;1795): French politician and mathematician who developed the French Republican Calendar.<ref>"Although an atheist, Romme did not support deChristianization, nor did he regret the fall of Maximilien Robespierre." [http://books.google.com/books?id=LfUBkACi3-wC&printsec=frontcover#PPA281,M1 Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution], by Paul R. Hanson, Scarecrow Press, 2004, p. 281 (Accessed April 15, 2008)</ref>
* [[Proinsias De Rossa]] (1940&ndash;): Irish politician, former President of the [[The Workers Party (Ireland)|Workers Party]], leader of [[Democratic Left (Ireland)|Democratic Left]], and later a senior member of the [[Labour Party (Ireland)|Labour Party]].<ref>"Two weeks ago, the minister for social affairs, Proinsias de Rossa, announced the setting up of a commission on the family. He was described to me as "the social conscience of the present government, that tends to be a little Thatcherite." He is a socialist and an avowed atheist, remarkable for an Irish politician." Peter Lennon, 'Flocking to the cause', ''The Guardian'' (London), November 14, 1995, Features Pages, Pg. T4.</ref>
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* [[Proinsias De Rossa]] (1940&ndash;): Irish politician, former President of the [[Workers' Party of Ireland|Workers' Party]], leader of [[Democratic Left (Ireland)|Democratic Left]], and later a senior member of the [[Labour Party (Ireland)|Labour Party]].<ref>"Two weeks ago, the minister for social affairs, Proinsias de Rossa, announced the setting up of a commission on the family. He was described to me as "the social conscience of the present government, that tends to be a little Thatcherite." He is a socialist and an avowed atheist, remarkable for an Irish politician." Peter Lennon, 'Flocking to the cause', ''The Guardian'' (London), November 14, 1995, Features Pages, Pg. T4.</ref>
 
* [[Manabendra Nath Roy]] (1887&ndash;1954): born Narendra Nath Bhattacharya, popularly known as M. N. Roy, was a Bengali Indian revolutionary, internationally known political theorist and activist, founder of the Communist parties in Mexico and India. He later denounced communism, as exponent of the philosophy of radical humanism.<ref>"But Roy was an atheist and fierce priest hater..." [http://www.jstor.org/stable/2051747 Portrait of a Bengal Revolutionary], by Leonard A. Gordon, ''The Journal of Asian Studies'', Vol. 27, No. 2 (Feb., 1968), pp. 197-216, published by Association for Asian Studies</ref>
 
* [[Manabendra Nath Roy]] (1887&ndash;1954): born Narendra Nath Bhattacharya, popularly known as M. N. Roy, was a Bengali Indian revolutionary, internationally known political theorist and activist, founder of the Communist parties in Mexico and India. He later denounced communism, as exponent of the philosophy of radical humanism.<ref>"But Roy was an atheist and fierce priest hater..." [http://www.jstor.org/stable/2051747 Portrait of a Bengal Revolutionary], by Leonard A. Gordon, ''The Journal of Asian Studies'', Vol. 27, No. 2 (Feb., 1968), pp. 197-216, published by Association for Asian Studies</ref>
 
* [[Phil Sawford]] (1950&ndash;): British politician and former [[Member of Parliament]] for [[Kettering (UK Parliament constituency)|Kettering]].<ref>"I, too, am a republican atheist, by the way—that should be put in the record—and agree with points made by other hon. Members." Phil Sawford, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmstand/deleg1/st011029/11029s03.htm House of Commons Standing Committee on Delegated Legislation (pt 3)], October 29, 2001 (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Phil Sawford]] (1950&ndash;): British politician and former [[Member of Parliament]] for [[Kettering (UK Parliament constituency)|Kettering]].<ref>"I, too, am a republican atheist, by the way—that should be put in the record—and agree with points made by other hon. Members." Phil Sawford, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmstand/deleg1/st011029/11029s03.htm House of Commons Standing Committee on Delegated Legislation (pt 3)], October 29, 2001 (accessed April 24, 2008).</ref>
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* [[Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington]] (1877&ndash;1946): Irish [[suffragist]] and nationalist.<ref>"She had been a militant nationalist among the pacifist internationalist feminists, a republican among the free staters, a feminist among the nationalists, and an atheist in holy Ireland." Sybil Oldfield, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/38533 'Skeffington, Johanna Mary Sheehy- (1877–1946)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington]] (1877&ndash;1946): Irish [[suffragist]] and nationalist.<ref>"She had been a militant nationalist among the pacifist internationalist feminists, a republican among the free staters, a feminist among the nationalists, and an atheist in holy Ireland." Sybil Oldfield, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/38533 'Skeffington, Johanna Mary Sheehy- (1877–1946)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 2, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Owen Sheehy-Skeffington]] (1909&ndash;1970): Irish university lecturer and Senator.<ref>"His parents combined Irish nationalism, atheism, feminism, pacifism, and socialism. Sheehy-Skeffington learned to think for himself, coming to share their politics, minus his mother's later abstentionist republicanism." D. R. O'Connor Lysaght, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/54751 'Skeffington, Owen Lancelot Sheehy- (1909–1970)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 6, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Owen Sheehy-Skeffington]] (1909&ndash;1970): Irish university lecturer and Senator.<ref>"His parents combined Irish nationalism, atheism, feminism, pacifism, and socialism. Sheehy-Skeffington learned to think for himself, coming to share their politics, minus his mother's later abstentionist republicanism." D. R. O'Connor Lysaght, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/54751 'Skeffington, Owen Lancelot Sheehy- (1909–1970)'], ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 6, 2008).</ref>
* [[Clare Short]] (1946&ndash;): British politician, former [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] Secretary of State for International Development, now an Independent [[Member_of_Parliament#United_Kingdom|MP]].<ref>"Father Doonagh might have described this helping hand to a needy stranger as an act of Christian charity. That's probably not how the atheist Short would see it." Vincent Graff, 'Order! Order! Politics and Food Special', ''The Observer'' (England), May 25, 2008, Observer Food Monthly, Pg. 38.</ref>
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* [[Clare Short]] (1946&ndash;): British politician, former [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] Secretary of State for International Development, now an Independent [[Member of Parliament#United Kingdom|MP]].<ref>"Father Doonagh might have described this helping hand to a needy stranger as an act of Christian charity. That's probably not how the atheist Short would see it." Vincent Graff, 'Order! Order! Politics and Food Special', ''The Observer'' (England), May 25, 2008, Observer Food Monthly, Pg. 38.</ref>
 
* [[Bhagat Singh]] (1907&ndash;1931): Indian freedom fighter. Wrote a pamphlet entitled ''Why I am an atheist''.<ref>[http://www.marxists.org/archive/bhagat-singh/1930/10/05.htm Why I am an Atheist], Bhagat Singh, October 1930. </ref>
 
* [[Bhagat Singh]] (1907&ndash;1931): Indian freedom fighter. Wrote a pamphlet entitled ''Why I am an atheist''.<ref>[http://www.marxists.org/archive/bhagat-singh/1930/10/05.htm Why I am an Atheist], Bhagat Singh, October 1930. </ref>
 
* [[Dennis Skinner]] (1932&ndash;): British politician, who has been the [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] Member of Parliament for Bolsover since 1970.<ref>" All MPs may reserve a particular seat in Parliament for morning prayers, which they then keep for the rest of the day. Skinner, an atheist, refuses to pray, but still likes to 'bagsy' his favourite pew. Following a complaint from the Tory Chris Grayling, the Serjeant at Arms issued him with a formal reprimand. 'Dennis told him to get stuffed,' says a colleague. 'It's an excellent spot for heckling, and he's not going to vacate it without a fight.' " Guy Adams, 'Pandora', ''The Independent'' (London), December 13, 2005, Features, Pg. 14.</ref>
 
* [[Dennis Skinner]] (1932&ndash;): British politician, who has been the [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] Member of Parliament for Bolsover since 1970.<ref>" All MPs may reserve a particular seat in Parliament for morning prayers, which they then keep for the rest of the day. Skinner, an atheist, refuses to pray, but still likes to 'bagsy' his favourite pew. Following a complaint from the Tory Chris Grayling, the Serjeant at Arms issued him with a formal reprimand. 'Dennis told him to get stuffed,' says a colleague. 'It's an excellent spot for heckling, and he's not going to vacate it without a fight.' " Guy Adams, 'Pandora', ''The Independent'' (London), December 13, 2005, Features, Pg. 14.</ref>
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* [[Xuan Thuy]] (1912&ndash;1985): North Vietnamese political figure, foreign minister for North Vietnam 1963&ndash;65, official leader of the delegation to the secret talks with [[Henry Kissinger]], and the main negotiator at the earliest meetings with Kissinger.<ref>"It has just been revealed that Thuy used to earn a living as a sorcerer [...] he travelled around the country selling magical charms, spells and cures, and spreading Communist propaganda at the same time. This information was volunteered by a Vietcong colonel who recently came over to the South Vietnam Government side. He said they Thuy, being an atheist, clearly did not believe in his own magical powers, but had used sorcery purely as a cover for his political work." 'Party Tricks', 'The Times Diary', ''The Times'', June 7, 1968; pg. 8; Issue 57271; col F.</ref>
 
* [[Xuan Thuy]] (1912&ndash;1985): North Vietnamese political figure, foreign minister for North Vietnam 1963&ndash;65, official leader of the delegation to the secret talks with [[Henry Kissinger]], and the main negotiator at the earliest meetings with Kissinger.<ref>"It has just been revealed that Thuy used to earn a living as a sorcerer [...] he travelled around the country selling magical charms, spells and cures, and spreading Communist propaganda at the same time. This information was volunteered by a Vietcong colonel who recently came over to the South Vietnam Government side. He said they Thuy, being an atheist, clearly did not believe in his own magical powers, but had used sorcery purely as a cover for his political work." 'Party Tricks', 'The Times Diary', ''The Times'', June 7, 1968; pg. 8; Issue 57271; col F.</ref>
 
* [[Palmiro Togliatti]] (1893&ndash;1964): Italian politician, the leader of [[Italian Communist Party]] from 1927 to his death in 1964.<ref>"Churches along the route were closed. It was said at the Vatican that this could be seen as a silent protest against an atheist's funeral on such a scale in the heart of Christian Rome." 'Communist Show Of Strength At Signor Togliatti's Funeral', ''The Times'', August 26, 1964; pg. 7; Issue 56100; col C.</ref>
 
* [[Palmiro Togliatti]] (1893&ndash;1964): Italian politician, the leader of [[Italian Communist Party]] from 1927 to his death in 1964.<ref>"Churches along the route were closed. It was said at the Vatican that this could be seen as a silent protest against an atheist's funeral on such a scale in the heart of Christian Rome." 'Communist Show Of Strength At Signor Togliatti's Funeral', ''The Times'', August 26, 1964; pg. 7; Issue 56100; col C.</ref>
* [[William Trenwith]] (1846&ndash;19254): Austrlian trade union official and labour movement politician.<ref>"In 1886-89 Trenwith prepared for parliament in a dozen lesser forums, assuming executive positions on the Workingman's Club, the Democratic Society, the Sunday Liberation Society and the Secularist Society. Despite his avowed atheism, he edged his way into respectable circles. In 1886 he was appointed a commissioner on the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition and took a similar post on Melbourne's International Exhibition of 1888. He also sat on the provisional committee of the Working Men's College." Bruce Scates: '[http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120289b.htm Trenwith, William Arthur (Billy) (1846 - 1925)]', ''Australian Dictionary of Biography'', Online Edition (accessed July 16, 2008).</ref>
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* [[William Trenwith]] (1846&ndash;1925): Australian trade union official and labour movement politician.<ref>"In 1886-89 Trenwith prepared for parliament in a dozen lesser forums, assuming executive positions on the Workingman's Club, the Democratic Society, the Sunday Liberation Society and the Secularist Society. Despite his avowed atheism, he edged his way into respectable circles. In 1886 he was appointed a commissioner on the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition and took a similar post on Melbourne's International Exhibition of 1888. He also sat on the provisional committee of the Working Men's College." Bruce Scates: '[http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120289b.htm Trenwith, William Arthur (Billy) (1846 - 1925)]', ''Australian Dictionary of Biography'', Online Edition (accessed July 16, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Leon Trotsky]] (1879&ndash;1940): Marxist theorist.<ref>
 
* [[Leon Trotsky]] (1879&ndash;1940): Marxist theorist.<ref>
 
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* [[Frederick Vosper]] (1869&ndash;1901): Australian newspaper journalist and proprietor, and politician, known for his ardent views and support of Australian republicanism, federalism and trade unionism.<ref>"A professed atheist, he fought for causes such as republicanism, political separation for the goldfields and miners' safety; he also opposed Asian immigration." E. Jaggard, '[http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120374b.htm Vosper, Frederick Charles Burleigh (1869 - 1901)]', ''Australian Dictionary of Biography'' Online Edition (accessed July 16, 2008).</ref>
 
* [[Frederick Vosper]] (1869&ndash;1901): Australian newspaper journalist and proprietor, and politician, known for his ardent views and support of Australian republicanism, federalism and trade unionism.<ref>"A professed atheist, he fought for causes such as republicanism, political separation for the goldfields and miners' safety; he also opposed Asian immigration." E. Jaggard, '[http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120374b.htm Vosper, Frederick Charles Burleigh (1869 - 1901)]', ''Australian Dictionary of Biography'' Online Edition (accessed July 16, 2008).</ref>
* [[Bengt Westerberg]] (1943&ndash;): [[Sweden|Swedish]] politician, leader of the [[Liberal People's Party (Sweden)|Liberal People's Party]] from 1983 to 1995. Minister for Social Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister from 1991 to 1994. Currently holds office as the [[Deputy President]] of the [[International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies]] in [[Geneva]], [[Switzerland]].<ref>{{sv icon}} {{cite web||url=http://www.humanisten.se/lasartikel.php?id=45|title="Bengt Westerberg: Humanistisk ledning av Röda Korset"|publisher=[[Humanisterna#Humanisten|Humanisten]]|accessdate=2007-08-18}} ''Translation:''
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* [[Bengt Westerberg]] (1943&ndash;): [[Sweden|Swedish]] politician, leader of the [[Liberal People's Party (Sweden)|Liberal People's Party]] from 1983 to 1995. Minister for Social Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister from 1991 to 1994. Currently holds office as the [[Deputy President]] of the [[International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies]] in [[Geneva]], [[Switzerland]].<ref>{{sv icon}} {{cite web|url=http://www.humanisten.se/lasartikel.php?id=45|title="Bengt Westerberg: Humanistisk ledning av Röda Korset"|publisher=[[Humanisterna#Humanisten|Humanisten]]|accessdate=2007-08-18}} ''Translation:''
 
Interviewer: I would like to ask you about your relation to religion and atheistic humanism. When did you "come out" as [an] atheist and how did it happen?<br>
 
Interviewer: I would like to ask you about your relation to religion and atheistic humanism. When did you "come out" as [an] atheist and how did it happen?<br>
 
Westerberg: If you mean in public, then I revealed it in connection to my candidacy as party leader for the People's Party. I got the question if I believed in God from Thomas Hempel in Radioekot (radioprogram) and answered no. That's when it became known, though I've never made any secret about it.</ref>
 
Westerberg: If you mean in public, then I revealed it in connection to my candidacy as party leader for the People's Party. I got the question if I believed in God from Thomas Hempel in Radioekot (radioprogram) and answered no. That's when it became known, though I've never made any secret about it.</ref>
 
* [[Phillip Whitehead]] (1937&ndash;2005): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician, television producer and writer.<ref>"It was entirely right that Phillip Whitehead, who loved the village and had lived there since he was three, should have left it in the way that Rowsley men and women have left it for 200 years and more. It was an English funeral in an English village according to the rites of the Church of England. But it is at least a paradox that a man who was an uncompromising atheist - and so described by one of his sons during the service - should be laid to rest with the promise of resurrection and eternal life." Roy Hattersley, 'A decent send-off: Even a hardline atheist can see that the church is better than anyone at staging the last farewell', ''The Guardian'' January 16, 2006, Pg. 31.</ref>
 
* [[Phillip Whitehead]] (1937&ndash;2005): British [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] politician, television producer and writer.<ref>"It was entirely right that Phillip Whitehead, who loved the village and had lived there since he was three, should have left it in the way that Rowsley men and women have left it for 200 years and more. It was an English funeral in an English village according to the rites of the Church of England. But it is at least a paradox that a man who was an uncompromising atheist - and so described by one of his sons during the service - should be laid to rest with the promise of resurrection and eternal life." Roy Hattersley, 'A decent send-off: Even a hardline atheist can see that the church is better than anyone at staging the last farewell', ''The Guardian'' January 16, 2006, Pg. 31.</ref>
* [[Alan Wolfe]] (19??&ndash;): American [[political science|political scientist]] and [[sociologist]], director of the [[Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life]].<ref>"Wolfe, a self-proclaimed atheist, said he recognizes the importance of being open to religious ideas." Sara Esquilin, [http://media.www.dailyfreepress.com/media/storage/paper87/news/2008/04/29/News/Celebrated.Atheists.Debate.The.Ethics.Of.NonBelievers-3355090.shtml Celebrated atheists debate the ethics of non-believers], ''The Daily Free Press'', April 29, 2008 (accessed April 30, 2008).</ref>
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* [[Alan Wolfe]] (circa 1945&ndash;,<ref> "Curriculum Vitae" [http://www.bc.edu/centers/boisi/meta-elements/pdf/AW%27s_CV_2009-1990.pdf].</ref>): American [[political science|political scientist]] and [[sociologist]], director of the [[Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life]].<ref>"Wolfe, a self-proclaimed atheist, said he recognizes the importance of being open to religious ideas." Sara Esquilin, [http://media.www.dailyfreepress.com/media/storage/paper87/news/2008/04/29/News/Celebrated.Atheists.Debate.The.Ethics.Of.NonBelievers-3355090.shtml Celebrated atheists debate the ethics of non-believers], ''The Daily Free Press'', April 29, 2008 (accessed April 30, 2008).</ref>
* [[Mao Zedong]] (1893&ndash;1976): was a Chinese military and political leader, who led the Communist Party of China to victory in the Chinese Civil War, and was the leader of the People’s Republic of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Under his leadership, China officially became an [[State atheism|atheist state]].<ref>"With revolution came a new, atheist regime - one that frowned on all religious belief." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/3343535.stm China's Catholics: Far from Rome], by Holly Williams, BBC News, December 24, 2003, (Accessed April 14, 2008)</ref><ref>"...Mao was an atheist..." [http://www.jstor.org/stable/2949869 Death Ritual as Political Trickster in the People's Republic of China], by A. P. Cheater, ''Source: The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs'', No. 26 (Jul., 1991), pp. 67-97 (p. 92), published by Contemporary China Center, Australian National University</ref><ref>"Mao is not only a historical figure, of course, but is part of the (tattered) web of legitimacy on which the People's Republic rests. He is part of the founding mythology of the Chinese government, the Romulus and Remus of "People's China," and that's why his portrait hangs in Tiananmen Square. Even among ordinary Chinese, Mao retains a hold on the popular imagination, and some peasants in different parts of China have started traditional religious shrines honoring him. That's the ultimate honor for an atheist - he has become a god." [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/23/books/review/23cover.html 'Mao': The Real Mao], Nicholas D. Kristof, ''The New York Times'', October 23, 2005 (Accessed April 25, 2008)</ref>.
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==Notes and references==
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{{Reflist|3}}
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Latest revision as of 18:29, 6 February 2010

Iron Chariots Wiki:Requested pages/Lists of nontheists

The content below was copied to this wiki from Wikipedia:List of nontheists (politics and law), February 2, 2010.

Do not try to maintain this list, as it may be periodically overwritten by a new version. It exists here only to indicate what names do and do not have articles here at Iron Chariots.

In particular, please:

  • Do not add or remove any names. (Of course, you may attempt these kinds of edits on the original Wikipedia article, if you wish. You may also add names to Iron Chariots Wiki:Requested pages#People.)
  • Do not correct any information. (You can edit the Wikipedia article if you find any mistakes.)
  • Do not fix any broken wiki code. (Many articles, images, categories and templates that exist on Wikipedia do not exist here. Don't try to fix these kinds of problems. Especially don't bother fixing problems caused by the <ref> syntax not working on this wiki.)
  • Do not fix any spelling, grammar or punctuation errors. (This is not an article in the main namespace — it need not be treated as such.)

But:

  • Please do follow any broken link ("redlink") you think deserves an article here on Iron Chariots, if you wish to create the article yourself. (Note that not every person listed below will be sufficiently relevant to our purposes on this wiki to warrant an article here.)

Politics and law


Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found
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