Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 - 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher during the European enlightenment, working primarily in the field of metaphysics. His most prominent contributions to contemporary thought are his theories of metaphysics and epistemology, as well as ethics.
Philosophical and Theological Contributions
Kant's contributions to metaphysics and epistemology are often given secondary importance to the conception. However, his contributions to those fields were significant, as well as his contributions to ethics.
Categories of Knowledge
Kantian epistemology focuses on a distinction between two categories of statement, the synthetic and the analytic. Though Kant did not use this language, the two are often expressed as being properties of propositions. An analytic proposition is one which can be found to be true or false without reference to any other statement. A synthetic proposition is one which can only be found to be true or false with to other statements. Kant also distinguishes between statements which can be known to be true a priori and those which can only be known to be true a posteriori. A statement can be known to be true a priori if the discernment of its truth value can be assessed without any investigation of the physical world. A posteriori statements can only be found to be true or false upon observation of the physical world.
(1755) Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven (1762) The False Subtlety of Four Syllogistic Figures (1763) The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God (1764) Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1781) Critique of Pure Reason (1783) Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1785) Groundwork for a Metaphysic of Morals (1786) Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Sciences (1788) Critique of Practical Reason (1790) Critique of Judgment (1793) Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone (1797) Metaphysics of Morals