# Formal logic

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**Logic** is a method by which valid conclusions are drawn from given premises. It can be applied to natural-language arguments or to formal, symbolic systems. Today logic provides the foundation upon which all areas of modern mathematics and science are ultimately based.

## Types of logic

**Informal logic** is the study of natural-language arguments, especially the identification of logical fallacies.

**Formal logic**, on the other hand, involves the systematic study of logical reasoning usually within the framework of a symbolic system of terms, operations, quantifiers, axioms, theorems, etc.

Formal logic can be further subdivided into several related areas:

- Syllogistic, or Aristotelian, logic
- Predicate logic
- Modal logic
- Mathematical logic
- Philosophical logic
- Computer logic
- Argumentation theory

The kinds of reasoning described by logic can be roughly classified as deductive or inductive.

- Deductive reasoning...
- Inductive reasoning...