Formal logic

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Logic is a method by which valid conclusions are drawn from given premises. It can be applied to natural-language arguments or to formal, symbolic systems. Today logic provides the foundation upon which all areas of modern mathematics and science are ultimately based.

Types of logic

Informal logic is the study of natural-language arguments, especially the identification of logical fallacies.

Formal logic, on the other hand, involves the systematic study of logical reasoning usually within the framework of a symbolic system of terms, operations, quantifiers, axioms, theorems, etc.

Formal logic can be further subdivided into several related areas:

  • Syllogistic, or Aristotelian, logic
  • Predicate logic
  • Modal logic
  • Mathematical logic
  • Philosophical logic
  • Computer logic
  • Argumentation theory

The kinds of reasoning described by logic can be roughly classified as deductive or inductive.

  1. Deductive reasoning...
  2. Inductive reasoning...
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