Dualism or Cartesian Dualism is the philosophical position that there are two kinds of "stuff": usual ordinary matter, and spirit. Rocks, light, clouds, etc. are composed of ordinary matter, whereas minds and souls are composed of a fundamentally different type of matter. Dualism stands in contrast to monism and philosophical materialism. Dualism is an ontological position, ontology being a branch of metaphysics.
Psychologists have found evidence that people in various cultures have a tendency to believe in mind-body dualism. This belief is a prerequisite for the idea of invisible or metaphysical minds, such as Gods. Studies have found that belief in dualism is linked with religious belief. 
Perhaps the major counterargument to dualism is the fact that the existence of a soul, or of soul matter, has never been demonstrated. Much experimental work has been done in psychology, but none of it has shown that there needs to be a separate type of matter to explain how minds work. As far as science can tell at present, the mind is simply the result of the operation of a brain made of ordinary matter.
The brain is resource intensive
Physiology also provides evidence against the existence of a mind outside the body: the brain is an expensive organ, requiring a lot of resources, such as oxygen, to function properly. If the seat of thought is not in the brain, but in an external mind in a separate plane, then there is no need for the human brain to be as large as it is. Natural selection should have favored those individuals with smaller brains as being better able to keep their brains functioning in times of scarcity.
Interaction not explained
If mind matter exists, it must interface with the body somehow: signals from the eyes (which are made of ordinary matter) must pass to the mind, which must then decide what to do next and somehow signal the muscles to move appropriately. It should be possible to discover where and how this mind-body interface works, for instance by studying people who have sustained mental problems as a result of physical injury or stroke.
- Methodological naturalism
- Daniel Dennett presents a case against Cartesian dualism in his book, Consciousness Explained.
- ↑ Aiyana K. Willard, Ara Norenzayan, Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life’s purpose, Cognition, Volume 129, Issue 2, November 2013, Pages 379–391