Argument from the meaning of life

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==Argument From the Meaning of Life==
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The '''argument from the meaning of life''' states that God must exist because without God, human life would have no objective meaning. Conversely, apologists sometimes assert that a meaning of life exists and that this implies God exists too. No one wants to admit that their life is void of meaning and purpose, which provides the [[appeal to emotion|emotional basis for the argument]].
  
The '''argument from the meaning of life''' is a type of [[appeal to emotion]]. In this case, the arguer typically feels as though life hasn't come about by chance and is therefore special and designed with a purpose in mind. The arguer might say "if there was no god, then life would be pointless." They might even propose that the only way life can have meaning is if God exists.
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In 1843, [[Søren Kierkegaard]] wrote: <ref name="fear">Søren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling</ref>
  
No one wants to admit that their life is void of meaning and purpose. The arguer uses this by suggesting that to believe life has meaning, you must also believe that God exists.  
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{{quote|If there were no eternal consciousness in a man, if at the bottom of everything there were only a wild ferment, a power that twisting in dark passions produced everything great or inconsequential; if an unfathomable, insatiable emptiness lay hid beneath everything, what would life be but despair?}}
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More recent apologists have written:
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{{quote|Without God, life has no purpose, and without purpose, life has no meaning. Without meaning, life has no significance or hope. <ref name="warren">Rick Warren, ''The Purpose Driven Life: What on Earth Am I Here for?''</ref>}}
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{{quote|If all the events are meaningless, then what can be the ultimate meaning of influencing any of them? Ultimately it makes no difference. <ref name="wlc">William Lane Craig, ''The Absurdity of Life without God'' [http://www.reasonablefaith.org/the-absurdity-of-life-without-god]</ref>}}
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[[Argument from justice]] is sometimes combined with this argument because it provides consequences to moral actions which is argued to be necessary for those actions to be meaningful. <ref name="wlc"/> This argument is related to the [[transcendental argument]] because both assert objective things exist that depend on the existence of God.
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==What does the "meaning of life” mean?==
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The meaning of life refers to the significance or purpose of human existence. Ancient and Medieval philosophy in the West has tended to only consider "intrinsic" values, roughly meaning a value is "good for its own sake", <ref name="gray">JW Gray, ''What Does “Meaning of Life” Mean?'' December 29, 2009 [http://ethicalrealism.wordpress.com/2009/12/29/is-there-a-meaning-of-life/]</ref> as potential candidates for the meaning for life. Similarly, most religions consider metaphysical notions such as ethics or our relationship with God to be the purpose of life. It is usually assumed that the purpose of life is uniform for all humans, invariant to time and is good no matter regardless of who attains it. This is the conception of the "meaning of life" used in the argument.
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Enlightenment philosophy changed the focus of meaning to "natural rights" of humans, which do not necessarily depend on God. [[Humanism]] and [[utilitarianism]] are similar in that they are concerned with improving the overall "greater good of humanity". These views implicitly suppose that a significance for human life can exist without recourse to God.
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[[Existentialism]] and other branches of modern philosophy have tended to consider objective meaning of life as non-existent or conceptually meaningless. The possibility of a subjective or person specific "meaning of life" is accepted.
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<blockquote>''"This—is now MY way,—where is yours?" Thus did I answer those who asked me "the way." For THE way—it doth not exist! <ref>Friedrich Nietzsche, ''Thus Spake Zarathustra'' [http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1998]</ref>''</blockquote>
  
 
==Problems With This Argument==
 
==Problems With This Argument==
  
*Those that use this argument assume that life without a god has no meaning. In fact, a person can still have a fulfilling and memorable life even if that life is finite.
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===Appeal to emotion===
  
*It is important to determine what the theist believes the meaning of life actually is. In some cases, they say the meaning of life is to worship God. Subservient worship is not going to be most people's idea of a meaningful life.
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The argument suggests that we should believe in a god, even if it does not exist, so that we can feel the self esteem boost of our lives having a higher meaning. If a conclusion is [[appeal to emotion|accepted solely on its emotional appeal]], it is a logical fallacy. A person can still have a subjectively meaningful, fulfilling and memorable life, even if objective meaning does not exist. [[Existentialism]] is a branch of philosophy concerned with existence without objective meaning, or the need to create one's own meaning. Conversely, some have argued that human mortality followed by non-existence is the only way for human life to have meaning. The rareness and uniqueness is thought to make it special.
  
*It is also important to determine if there even is a meaning to life.
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{{quote|[Being] aware of our own mortality makes us aware of the value of life. We realise that life is too precious to be wasted and so feel invigorated. [...] We feel grateful just to be alive, to have been born into this world for a short time. We appreciate the beauty and wonder of nature, the people in our lives, and mundane everyday things, such as food, water and the weather. [...] Encounters with death also make us more present-centred. <ref>Steve Taylor, ''Out of the Darkness'', November 26, 2011 [http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/out-the-darkness/201111/waking-life-through-death]</ref>}}
  
*Even still, there is the question of "so what?" Just because we might feel uncomfortable admitting that our life does not serve an eternal purpose, it does not mean that a god necessarily exists. At most, this argument becomes a variation on [[Pascal's Wager]]. The arguer is suggesting that we should believe in a god, even if it does not exist, so that we can feel the self esteem boost of our lives having a higher meaning.
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===Objective meaning of life might not exist===
  
*This argument fails when we bring predestination and free will into the picture. Firstly, if meaning is predestined, then either God is unjust and does not give atheists the same facility to meaning, or is impotent, and can't. Secondly, free will and "designed" meaning cannot exist together, as they are mutually exclusive.
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The argument assumes there is an objective meaning to life. However, this is not necessarily true and difficult to establish with confidence. Although we might feel uncomfortable admitting that our life does not serve an eternal purpose, we should not simply assume that it does. There is no evidence that any objective meaning of life exists. While religious believers claim their idea of the meaning of life is objective, without some way of verifying it, it is likely to be another a subjective concept. Simply claiming their concept of meaning is objective does not make it objective.
  
*It seems as if the majority of this argument is based on an objective definition of the word meaning, while in reality a meaning of life is not objective but subjective.  
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===Free will and predestination===
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{{main article|Free Will vs. Predestination}}
  
{{Arguments for god}}
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If meaning is predestined, then either God is unjust and does not give atheists the same facility to meaning, or is impotent, and can't. Secondly, free will and "designed" meaning cannot exist together, as they are mutually exclusive.
  
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===Christian idea for the meaning of life is questionable===
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It is important to determine what the theist believes the meaning of life actually is. In some cases, they say the meaning of life is to worship God. Subservient worship is not going to be most people's idea of a meaningful life.
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Alternatively, God may have determined the purpose of humans is to be quite different from what humans currently belief and, for all we know, is possibly unachievable. This would hardly be a comforting concept.
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===God and the objective===
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If God exists, what makes that God's view of the purpose of human life more privileged than any other conception? Creating something does not automatically confer the creator's interpretation on the object, as seen with human creations. An object created for one purpose may be equally (or more) suitable for alternative purposes. God may set some criteria for what he considers to be valuable but that does not automatically imply those values have objective value in themselves.
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===Spontaneous meaning===
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Various possibilities are ignored by the argument but are just as valid as the conclusion. The objective meaning of life could have spontaneously created itself, be necessarily existent or created by a non-divine agent. It could be different for each person, even if there is a God.
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===Claim that Earthly life is worthless===
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According to [[Pascal's wager]], the value of the Earthly component of life is zero. The Bible also teaches to avoid worldliness <ref>OpenBible, ''42 Bible Verses about Worldly Things'' [http://www.openbible.info/topics/worldly_things]</ref> e.g. {{Bible|1 John 2:15-17}}:
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{{quote|Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world—the desires of the flesh and the desires of the eyes and pride in possessions—is not from the Father but is from the world. And the world is passing away along with its desires, but whoever does the will of God abides forever.}}
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[[Friedrich Nietzsche]] strongly criticised this view, claiming that objective values do not exist but the creation of subjective values is a kind of meta-meaning of life: <ref>Friedrich Nietzsche, ''Thus Spake Zarathustra'' [http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1998]</ref>
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{{quote|To blaspheme the earth is now the dreadfulest sin, and to rate the heart of the unknowable higher than the meaning of the earth!}}
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If we only have Earthly life and non-believers consider there to be a subjective meaning to life, it is arguable that it is Christians who devalue Earthly life are the real [[nihilism|nihilists]].
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===No reliable means to determine objective meaning===
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If God created an objective meaning of life, we do not have reliable means to determine if it exists or what it entails. Holy books and testimony of revelation are contradictory, mythological and vague.
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==References==
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<references/>
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==See also==
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* [[Existentialism]]
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* [[There are no atheists in foxholes]] - also deals with the emotional impact of one's own mortality.
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* [[Moral nihilism]]
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* [[God is dead]]
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==External links==
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meaning_of_life Meaning of life] on wikipedia
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{{DEFAULTSORT:meaning of life, Argument from the}}
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{{Arguments for god}}
 
[[Category:Arguments]]
 
[[Category:Arguments]]
 
[[Category:Arguments for the existence of God]]
 
[[Category:Arguments for the existence of God]]
[[Category:Arguments from design]]
 

Latest revision as of 16:25, 11 May 2014

The argument from the meaning of life states that God must exist because without God, human life would have no objective meaning. Conversely, apologists sometimes assert that a meaning of life exists and that this implies God exists too. No one wants to admit that their life is void of meaning and purpose, which provides the emotional basis for the argument.

In 1843, Søren Kierkegaard wrote: [1]

"If there were no eternal consciousness in a man, if at the bottom of everything there were only a wild ferment, a power that twisting in dark passions produced everything great or inconsequential; if an unfathomable, insatiable emptiness lay hid beneath everything, what would life be but despair?"

More recent apologists have written:

"Without God, life has no purpose, and without purpose, life has no meaning. Without meaning, life has no significance or hope. [2]"
"If all the events are meaningless, then what can be the ultimate meaning of influencing any of them? Ultimately it makes no difference. [3]"

Argument from justice is sometimes combined with this argument because it provides consequences to moral actions which is argued to be necessary for those actions to be meaningful. [3] This argument is related to the transcendental argument because both assert objective things exist that depend on the existence of God.

Contents

What does the "meaning of life” mean?

The meaning of life refers to the significance or purpose of human existence. Ancient and Medieval philosophy in the West has tended to only consider "intrinsic" values, roughly meaning a value is "good for its own sake", [4] as potential candidates for the meaning for life. Similarly, most religions consider metaphysical notions such as ethics or our relationship with God to be the purpose of life. It is usually assumed that the purpose of life is uniform for all humans, invariant to time and is good no matter regardless of who attains it. This is the conception of the "meaning of life" used in the argument.

Enlightenment philosophy changed the focus of meaning to "natural rights" of humans, which do not necessarily depend on God. Humanism and utilitarianism are similar in that they are concerned with improving the overall "greater good of humanity". These views implicitly suppose that a significance for human life can exist without recourse to God.

Existentialism and other branches of modern philosophy have tended to consider objective meaning of life as non-existent or conceptually meaningless. The possibility of a subjective or person specific "meaning of life" is accepted.

"This—is now MY way,—where is yours?" Thus did I answer those who asked me "the way." For THE way—it doth not exist! [5]

Problems With This Argument

Appeal to emotion

The argument suggests that we should believe in a god, even if it does not exist, so that we can feel the self esteem boost of our lives having a higher meaning. If a conclusion is accepted solely on its emotional appeal, it is a logical fallacy. A person can still have a subjectively meaningful, fulfilling and memorable life, even if objective meaning does not exist. Existentialism is a branch of philosophy concerned with existence without objective meaning, or the need to create one's own meaning. Conversely, some have argued that human mortality followed by non-existence is the only way for human life to have meaning. The rareness and uniqueness is thought to make it special.

"[Being] aware of our own mortality makes us aware of the value of life. We realise that life is too precious to be wasted and so feel invigorated. [...] We feel grateful just to be alive, to have been born into this world for a short time. We appreciate the beauty and wonder of nature, the people in our lives, and mundane everyday things, such as food, water and the weather. [...] Encounters with death also make us more present-centred. [6]"

Objective meaning of life might not exist

The argument assumes there is an objective meaning to life. However, this is not necessarily true and difficult to establish with confidence. Although we might feel uncomfortable admitting that our life does not serve an eternal purpose, we should not simply assume that it does. There is no evidence that any objective meaning of life exists. While religious believers claim their idea of the meaning of life is objective, without some way of verifying it, it is likely to be another a subjective concept. Simply claiming their concept of meaning is objective does not make it objective.

Free will and predestination

Main Article: Free Will vs. Predestination

If meaning is predestined, then either God is unjust and does not give atheists the same facility to meaning, or is impotent, and can't. Secondly, free will and "designed" meaning cannot exist together, as they are mutually exclusive.

Christian idea for the meaning of life is questionable

It is important to determine what the theist believes the meaning of life actually is. In some cases, they say the meaning of life is to worship God. Subservient worship is not going to be most people's idea of a meaningful life.

Alternatively, God may have determined the purpose of humans is to be quite different from what humans currently belief and, for all we know, is possibly unachievable. This would hardly be a comforting concept.

God and the objective

If God exists, what makes that God's view of the purpose of human life more privileged than any other conception? Creating something does not automatically confer the creator's interpretation on the object, as seen with human creations. An object created for one purpose may be equally (or more) suitable for alternative purposes. God may set some criteria for what he considers to be valuable but that does not automatically imply those values have objective value in themselves.

Spontaneous meaning

Various possibilities are ignored by the argument but are just as valid as the conclusion. The objective meaning of life could have spontaneously created itself, be necessarily existent or created by a non-divine agent. It could be different for each person, even if there is a God.

Claim that Earthly life is worthless

According to Pascal's wager, the value of the Earthly component of life is zero. The Bible also teaches to avoid worldliness [7] e.g. 1 John 2:15-17 Bible-icon.png:

"Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world—the desires of the flesh and the desires of the eyes and pride in possessions—is not from the Father but is from the world. And the world is passing away along with its desires, but whoever does the will of God abides forever."

Friedrich Nietzsche strongly criticised this view, claiming that objective values do not exist but the creation of subjective values is a kind of meta-meaning of life: [8]

"To blaspheme the earth is now the dreadfulest sin, and to rate the heart of the unknowable higher than the meaning of the earth!"

If we only have Earthly life and non-believers consider there to be a subjective meaning to life, it is arguable that it is Christians who devalue Earthly life are the real nihilists.

No reliable means to determine objective meaning

If God created an objective meaning of life, we do not have reliable means to determine if it exists or what it entails. Holy books and testimony of revelation are contradictory, mythological and vague.

References

  1. Søren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling
  2. Rick Warren, The Purpose Driven Life: What on Earth Am I Here for?
  3. 3.0 3.1 William Lane Craig, The Absurdity of Life without God [1]
  4. JW Gray, What Does “Meaning of Life” Mean? December 29, 2009 [2]
  5. Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spake Zarathustra [3]
  6. Steve Taylor, Out of the Darkness, November 26, 2011 [4]
  7. OpenBible, 42 Bible Verses about Worldly Things [5]
  8. Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spake Zarathustra [6]

See also

External links


v · d Arguments for the existence of god
Anthropic arguments   Anthropic principle · Natural-law argument
Arguments for belief   Pascal's Wager · Argument from faith · Just hit your knees
Christological arguments   Argument from scriptural miracles · Would someone die for a lie? · Liar, Lunatic or Lord
Cosmological arguments   Argument from aesthetic experience · Argument from contingency · Cosmological argument · Fine-tuning argument · Kalam · Leibniz cosmological argument · Principle of sufficient reason · Unmoved mover · Why is there something rather than nothing?
Majority arguments   Argument from admired religious scientists
Moral arguments   Argument from justice · Divine command theory
Ontological argument   Argument from degree · Argument from desire · Argument from the origin of the idea of God
Dogmatic arguments   Argument from divine sense · Argument from uniqueness
Teleological arguments   Argument from design · Banana argument · 747 Junkyard argument · Laminin argument · Argument from natural disasters
Testimonial arguments   Argument from observed miracles · Argument from personal experience · Consciousness argument for the existence of God · Emotional pleas
Transcendental arguments   God created numbers · Argument from the meaning of life
Scriptural arguments   Scriptural inerrancy · Scriptural scientific foreknowledge · Scriptural codes
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