# Absolute certainty

**Absolute certainty** is belief beyond any possible doubt (not just reasonable doubt, as in criminal trials in the U.S.). The only propositions that someone could be absolutely certain about are those proven within a rigorous logical system — and even those would typically have to be conditional statements, since they would necessarily rest on unproven assumptions (axioms or postulates), which one may not be absolutely certain of.

In particular, consider the statement:

- 1 + 1 = 2

Given the usual definitions of the symbols `1`, `+`, `=`, and `2`, one can be absolutely certain that 1 + 1 = 2.

But is it really so simple? What *are* the "usual definitions" of these symbols? What are the "real" definitions (i.e., that mathematicians use)? Does anything in the statement rest on unproven assumptions? What are they? The answers to these questions are actually extremely complicated. In fact, when Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell tried to place all of mathematics on a rigorous logical foundation in the early 20th century, eventually producing the three-volume work *Principia Mathematica*, it took over 700 pages of dense logical argumentation to get to the point where they could prove that 1 + 1 = 2.

The 17th-century philosopher René Descartes asserted that the only thing he could be absolutely certain of was his own existence (summed up in his famous epigram, "*Cogito ergo sum*" — "I think, therefore I am"). He then tried to use this as the basis for all his beliefs.

## Absolute certainty and apologetics

*(This section needs expanding...)*